Meditation Mastery Secrets

Meditation Mastery Secrets

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The Logistic Equation and Human Demography

At the end of the eighteenth century Malthus (1798) published his Essay on the Principle of Populations, according to which the velocity of the growth of a population is proportional to the quantity of the population twice as many members produce twice as many offspring in unit time. This is a very simple but quite reasonable assumption and can be expressed in the language of differential equations the following way. Denote the size (the quantity, the numbers) of the population at time t by N(t). This function is considered to be a nonnegative function that varies continuously in time and may change its value by an arbitrary small quantity. Now, if we have in mind bacteria, grass, or sardines, then this is accebtable because we may measure them in milligrams or tons but if we talk about lions or human beings then this is just an approximation, and it may considered to be reasonable only if the numbers are large and we do not have to meditate over the result when the equations tell us...

The rise of catastrophism

This catastrophism, adopted by many geologists, was in evident harmony with the predominant theology of the day and perhaps drew additional, if unconscious, support from the political turmoil amid which the age of enlightenment drew to a close. For instance, in 1829 Elie de Beaumont established the existence of a major episode of geological uplift in the Pyrenees, between the end of the Mesozoic and the beginning of the Cenozoic, and saw the rise of the mountains as the chief cause for the mass extinction of species between the two eras. Many naturalists back then believed that geological time had been punctuated by catastrophes, and that each event may have had a different cause.

An Evolutionary Method

It is not so much that contemporary accounts of common law adjudication have abandoned their commitment to the doctrine of precedent, but more that they have relaxed and reworked the nature of law's backward-looking stance. Jurists have recognized that the traditional virtues of precedential authority (i.e., it produces certainty, allows reliance, curbs arbitrariness, effects equality, and encourages efficiency) are not to be underestimated. They understand that any explanation of what common law judges do or should do in a democratic system of governance must involve a strong attachment to such formal qualities. Nevertheless, it is largely recognized that, while the legal past must and should play a central role in the law's present and future development, resort to the legal past need not be restricted to particular decisions made or a mechanical application of them. Incorporating but not restricting itself to such decisions, the modern perception of common law development...

Chaos Theory and Quantum Mechanics

Left alone, self-learning systems would improve over time on their own because they are preprogrammed to learn and adapt to changing environments. In our e-health network example, clarifying any ambiguity in the vision and values over time, welcoming contributions from team members and letting go of those who may hinder organizational productivity, as well as providing a means for everyone in the network to stay interconnected, will eventually result in a network that achieves the continuous improvements in availability, accessibility, affordability, and accountability that were discussed in Part One of this text.

Living Lineages of Oral Transmission Asian and Indigenous Traditions

In such traditions, the guarantor of authenticity rather than wholesale freelance creativity is the lineage of oral transmission. Locating reliable religious authority in a lineage of oral transmission depends upon two major premises. The first is that, because of the brittle, unreliable character of the written word, it can be rather dangerous and misleading for untutored individuals to try to rely directly on texts, particularly those that discuss advanced exercises in meditation and mystical experience. Such danger exists because the written word cannot fully capture or express the truths it tries to communicate. Instead, communication of the deeper meanings of a text or tradition depends on the oral instruction from someone who has already understood the text fully and can transmit it in an appropriate manner. A very different evaluation of the reliability and potency of written Buddhism depends on the ineffable enlightenment experience of one man, Siddartha Gautama (563-483...

The Force of Tradition Collective Memory as Religious Authority

Hinduism is a modern European term for the religious behavior Europeans encountered in India, which is one reason why Hinduism as an overarching tradition is so difficult to summarize. For the vast majority of Hindus, tradition is the foundation of religious life, upon which other elements may be cast, but often tradition is the entire content of religious life. This is especially true for those segments of Hinduism not oriented to enlightenment and ultimate release but to doing one's duty well in this world and this type of Hinduism is, at least theoretically, the bottom line for all Hindus, no matter what else they might add on to this foundation. For traditional Hindus, life is a vast complex of duties and relationships, all of them laid out in the eternal dharma, the law code that no one quite understands fully, that is contained in no single source, and that differs from person to person depending on one's caste and stage of life. Nevertheless, duty is absolute and cannot be...

The Evolutionary Perspective

By the time Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species (1859), the Darwinian perspective was already dominant in scientific and progressive circles. Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations (1776), Jacques Turgot and his party of physiocrats, and the writings of any number of philosophes point to a (more or less) settled Enlightenment position The free movement of ideas, goods, and persons constrained by no more than natural forces produces an ever more refined, successful, and robust stock.

Leadership in Public Arenas

Her countenance was feminine, but with the stamp of leadership. Her carriage was graceful but always expressing dignity. . . . Though always dignified and high-minded had a sense of humor. . . . Wolf Chief also had a sense of humor. . . He was obviously proud of his wife, but like many a man married to a genius, was not always comfortable when she held the center of the stage . . . At a feast for two girls of prominent families Mother-of-all whose presence had been conspicuous during the proceedings of the morning . . . standing to one side upon a little eminence, leaning upon a long staff. She wore an elk-skin dress, decorated with elk teeth, the prized jewelry of her culture. . . . Apparently she was wrapped in meditation and about to begin a harangue . . . it was expected that some one, preferably an old woman, address the assembly at this time. . . . She began, speaking slowly and in well-formed sentences . . . on the level of oratory. (Wissler, 1938 1971, pp. 277-289)

Taming the Bulldog The Natural and the Pragmatic

Since its conceptual mapping by David Hume in 1739, the chasm between facts and value has remained wide and unbridgeable its abysmal floor is strewn with the mangled theories of those foolish enough to countenance such an ill-advised crossing.2 Quite simply, ethical mandates cannot be found in or gleaned from the biological facts of nature. Nevertheless, this has not deterred many commentators from turning Darwinian science into a kind of metaphysical ethics by synthesizing strict biological propositions with broader social behaviors they cannot imagine a Darwinian world that does not have Darwinian purposes. The unifying goal of these so-called Social Darwinians is to offer a prescriptive dimension for future human progress - the struggle between individuals and between individuals and their environment becomes both the engine and engineer of good social organization. With friends like this, Darwin has little need of enemies. Indeed, even though the stalwart Bulldog Huxley defended...

Christianity bioethics in

As western culture moves ever deeper into the period characterized in the mid-twentieth century by historian Christopher Dawson as secularized Christendom, the emerging interdisciplinary field that since 1970 has gone by the name bioethics can be understood only as a microcosm of the whole. In certain defining respects the impact of the Enlightenment of the eighteenth century was felt uniquely in the closing decades of the twentieth, in effects good and bad. The effacing of religious discourse from the public square, and the steady fragmentation of the professions under the reductionist pressures of economic and other social forces, show this delayed impact in contexts that have radically shaped the possibility of a bioethics rooted in the Christian vision of the western tradition. If religion is removed from the metaphor of public affairs, it is only in translation that the Christian worldview retains any opportunity to shape the public institutions of the culture. The predicament of...

What is Economic Development

The roots of modern theories of economic development can be traced to European social theory of the 18th century. In the early part of the century, Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon, set forth an organicist theory of social order. Blending scientific naturalism and the rationalism of the Enlightenment, this theory introduces the concept of an orderly progression of civilizations toward increasing levels of technological and economic advancement. Later in the century, a number of economists and philosophers including Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Friedrich Hegel, and Jeremy Bentham further promoted the idea of the

Compassionate Love within the Social Network

Both the giving and receiving of support can improve well-being and quality of life. Those who are sick generally do not want pity they want others to help them and understand them and care about them, but also, unless totally incapacitated, they want to give to others, and want to feel of use. One study of pain patients conducted by Frank Keefe, Ph.D at Duke University, is examining the use of a loving kindness meditation, a Buddhist-inspired practice that has patients dwell on compassionate love for themselves, close friends, those they have trouble with, and the whole world, to help those with pain experience less suffering. When sick people are enabled and encouraged to have good relationships with those around them, they can give to others within the constraints of their situation and this can be an additional positive outcome.

Suggestions For The Future

It is important that cognitive hypnotherapy be applied to a greater range of psychological problems, especially personality disorders. It has much in common with Mindfulness Meditation (Segal, Williams, & Teasdale, 2002) as well as other forms of meditation, even prayer (Dowd, in press). Many of these interventions are ancient and the similarities and differences among them should be more fully explored and tested. The research outcomc literature on these imagery meditation-based interventions is sparse indeed and research should be conducted not only to test their efficacy but their differential efficacy relative to other forms of cognitive-behavior therapy and therapeutic approaches.

Knowledge Of Results Principle See Learning Theorieslaws

Social-contract and universal-ethical principle. The central tenet of Kohlberg's original formulation (i.e., the presence of a universally fixed sequence of six moral stages) has not been supported by empirical investigations. On the other hand, research does indicate that an invariant level-to-level sequence may occur where preconventional morality is a prerequisite for conventional reasoning and where both must precede the appearance of postcon-ventional morality. Critics of Kohlberg's theory have emphasized the role that social-cultural factors may play in the development of postconventional reasoning, especially experiences within the context of a particular jurisprudence system of justice. Thus, although Kohlberg's model may not provide the universal view of a moral person, it may be relevant to an individual living in the United States of America who has a constitutionally based legal system. However, in the final analysis, the notion of morality - as it derives from a social...

Trance States A Theoretical Model Winkelman

Divided consciousness and enlightenment in Hindu Yogis. Anthropology of Consciousness, 2(304), 1-6. Walton,K., & Levitsky,D. (1994). A neuroendocrine mechanism for the reduction of drug use and addictions by transcendental meditation. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 11(1 2), 89-117.

Approaches to Buddhist Bioethics

Buddhist ethical perspectives, unlike some Western views, seldom characterize morality in absolute terms. For Buddhists, ethical behavior is a necessary component of successful adherence to the Dharma rather than an end in itself. Once enlightenment is attained, dualities expressed in ethical problems cease to exist. Action is judged not against an absolute moral standard (such as the Ten Commandments), but rather on the basis of its relative merit in leading toward or away from enlightenment. From an enlightened perspective, actions can no longer be characterized as moral or immoral. Rather, action (karma) has a neutral value, transcending moral distinctions. As such, ethics are important to the spiritual practice of human beings, but they have no larger significance.

Instrumental Activism

Parsons recognized that, despite sharing the values of instrumental activism, Americans disagree over many matters related to death. Abortion, capital punishment, licensing of firearms, euthanasia, medical care for the terminally ill, and organ transplantation, for example, were matters of public controversy when Parsons wrote and remain so today. Death in the Western World attempts to explain why this particular domain of contemporary culture has been chronically ridden with controversy. Parsons sought an answer in the rationalism of the Enlightenment, focusing on its synthesis in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant (1724-1804).

The Prehistory Of The Philosophers

It is often thought that the 'noble savage' was one of the main characters in the anthropological conjectures of the Enlightenment. Indeed 'noble savages' then peopled the pages oftravellers' narratives and philosophical treatises, in which descriptions of the virtues of'primitives'jostle with criticism of those who are 'civilised'. However, even if the educated European of the day indulged in stern self-examination, he remained an optimist, often believed in progress and would have felt no great enthusiasm for a return to an original state of 'pure nature'. We must not confuse the view of Antipodean space with that of the times of our beginnings Enlightenment's 'noble savages' are largely missing from theories of human origins - only Rousseau's Second discourse and its derivatives, as particular as they are ambivalent, might prove an exception.38 In general, eighteenth-century philosophers and naturalists imagined human ancestors as devoid of culture and reduced to an animal life, in...

Attentional Focusing

This use of this procedure, which is essentially a basic breathing meditation task, was described in detail in 1985 by Chris Clarke and Wayne Wardman. It involves a focusing task that aims to decrease the occurrence of danger-related intrusive thoughts by increasing the participant's ability to attend to alternative cognitive targets in a rhythmic breathing exercise. Participants are taught to focus on a series of numbers while breathing in and to focus on the word relax while breathing out. Participants are instructed to breathe normally and not to slow or speed up the respiration rate. Participants initially train with their eyes closed in a quiet location with minimal noise and distraction. As training progresses across sessions, participants are instructed to increas

The Moral Dangers of Enhancement

There are two lines of thought that have emerged from this work. The first focuses on the idea that biomedical enhancements are a form of social cheating. In this view, taking the biomedical shortcut erodes the specific social practices that make the analogous human achievement valuable in the first place. Thus, some argue that it defeats the purpose of the contest for the marathon runner to gain endurance chemically rather than through training, and it misses the point of meditation if one can gain Nirvana through psychosurgery. In both cases, the value of the improvements lie in the achievements they reward as well as the benefits they bring. The achievements (successful training or disciplined meditation) add value to the improvements because they are understood to be admirable social practices in themselves. Wherever a biomedical intervention is used to bypass an admirable social practice, then, the improvement's social value (the value of a runner's physical endurance or a...

Historicism Virtue and Tradition

Most modern moral theory and practice has dispensed with the Aristotelian idea of a human telos, an end proper to human beings as such. Modern social and political orders have ceased to define their mission as that of articulating a shared vision of the good life and communally pursuing it, since it is assumed that there is no good-defining end to seek. Then what can moderns claim to know when they make ethical assertions, decisions, and judgments MacIntyre dubs the standard modern response to this question the Enlightenment project the task of finding the universal rules or standards that guide conduct yet swing free from any substantive conception of a good life, and are justifiable by appealing to rationality. All attempts to fulfill the ambitions of the Enlightenment project have failed, according to MacIntyre, by their own standards of success. Kantians, Utilitarians, Humeans, Intuitionists, and so on, all presuppose that there is something universally known or grasped (the...

Challenges to an Ethics of Strangers

The first approach assumes the moral framework characteristic of the Enlightenment, with its stress on the impartial and the universalizable. Within this tradition, Nancy Rhoden has criticized the suspicion of the motives and interests of family members that has opened family decisions concerning nontreatment of incapacitated relatives to court review. Arguing in Litigating Life and Death (1988) that because family members are in the best position to reproduce the preferences of an incompetent patient, Rhoden concludes that the burden of proof should be on the physician rather than the family to convince a court of law that an unwise decision has been made. Using the same moral framework but setting it in service of a more radical departure from current practice, Hardwig (1990) has attacked the exclusionary bias of the doctor-patient relationship, insisting that the interests of all those with a stake in a medical decision, not just the patient's, be honored impartially.

Future Directions

As noted previously, the RP model developed by Marlatt and Gordon is now being applied to a variety of psychological and behavioral disorders. In addition, there is promising research in the use of mindfulness-based enhancements based on Buddhist meditation techniques to enhance patients' ability to remain focused on negative thoughts and emotions triggered by high-risk situations and engage previously planned coping strategies (Breslin, Zack, & McMain, 2002). Researchers have already demonstrated the efficacy of adding this component to RP in the prevention of recurrence of major depressive episodes (Segal, Williams, & Teasdale, 2002).

Brown Shrinkage Effect

BUDDHISM AND ZEN BUDDHISM, DOCTRINE OF. The Buddhist doctrine, or religious approach, developed around the life and teachings of the Indian religious leader Buddha or Siddhartha Gautama (c. 566-480 B.C.) the doctrine advances the notion that life's suffering is caused by desire where the transcendence of suffering and desire leads, eventually, to enlightenment or nirvana (i.e., the extinction of consciousness and desire). Buddhism teaches, also, that any sort of concept regarding an eternal self is basically an illusion. Zen Buddhism is a Japanese version of Buddhism in which illumination, spiritual unity, and satori are achieved via direct and intuitive experience as compared to the scien tific, rational, and intellectual approaches. One Zen master asserted that to study Buddhism is to study the self, and to study the self is to forget the self, and to forget the self is to be one with others. The doctrine of Buddhism and Zen Buddhism, including, also, the approaches of Hinduism,...

The War against Drugs

The nature of the American drug experience changed quickly in the mid-1960s. The use of illegal drugs, which had existed at the fringes of society for more than three decades, moved to the center of youth culture. The drugs of choice were cannabis and other psychedelics, such as LSD. Advocates claimed that using those substances gave a person an experience of ultimate reality, a kind of insight that saints had achieved only after lengthy meditation and asceticism. Aldous Huxley gave an early cachet to psychedelic use with two accounts, The Doors of Perception (1954) and Heaven and Hell (1956), based on his use of mescaline. Huxley believed, however, that such experiences were best confined to an intellectual elite. In the 1960s Timothy Leary expanded that concept in the 1960s to include everyone. Turn on, tune in, and drop out was his advice to America. A striking example of faith in the drug revolution was Charles Reich's The Greening of America (1970), which saw marijuana as the...

Victimization Of Animals

Humans victimize animals most fundamentally in the reasons we find for removing them from ethical concern. Rationalizations can be religious, moral, or scientific. By circular reasoning, God's world would be unbearably cruel if animal suffering mattered. In the seventeenth century, Rene Descartes* advanced this line of thought by asserting on weak grounds that animals feel no pain* at all. Descartes's notion of the beast-machine sustained the victimization of animals over the Enlightenment period when the sphere of rights and entitlements was expanding. The belief that animals lack consciousness, even if they do feel pain, is still occasionally claimed in scientific literature.

The Fundamental Moral Question Do People with Dementia Count

The fitting moral response to people with dementia, according to western ethical thought as informed by Judaism and Christianity, is to enlarge our sense of human worth to counter an exclusionary emphasis on rationality, efficient use of time and energy, ability to control distracting impulses, thrift, economic success, self-reliance, self-control, language advantage, and the like. As Alasdair Maclntyre argues, too much has been made of the significance of language, for instance, obscuring the moral significance of species who lack linguistic abilities, or human beings who have lost such abilities (Maclntyre). It is possible to distinguish two fundamental views of persons with dementia. Those in the tradition of Stoic and Enlightenment rationalism have achieved much for universal human moral standing by emphasizing the spark of reason (logos) in us all yet when this rationality dissipates, so does moral status. Those who take an alternative position see the Stoic heritage as an...

The History of Diverticular Disease

After the Romans the period of time until ad 1100 was to be known as the 'Dark Ages' because it has been judged as a time in the western world of un-enlightenment and obscurity with political fragmentation and a lack of centres of learning. Yet, although the history of stomas can be traced as far back as Celsus in 55 bc to ad 7, quoted by Dinnick in 1934, diverticular disease was first described by Littre (1732) when he dissected a neonate and described what he saw in the bowel as a diverticular hernia.

Types of Religious Leaders

Especially in some Asian traditions, a sage or guru (teacher) who has personally experienced the truths taught by that religion is the highest religious authority. These leaders also are often innovators in their tradition because they have been thoroughly trained, authorized to lead by their own teachers, and are trusted to advise people on matters of spiritual disciplines such as meditation.

Buddhism and Human Reproduction

Buddhism, which abolishes the caste system, has no concern with the suitability of marriages. Indeed, its monastic nature has made Buddhism generally uninterested in family life and reproduction. Throughout Buddhist history, clergy were forbidden to solemnize marriages this was seen as inappropriate involvement in worldly affairs. (Wedding ceremonies officiated by Buddhist monks are a recent innovation.) Nor does Buddhism have an elaborate ethical code for regulation of lay behavior. Throughout most of its 2,500-year history, Buddhism has been monastic lay life was not considered conducive for progress toward enlightenment. However, the sangha, the order of monks and nuns, did try to inculcate simple moral understanding in the laity. In contrast to the religious law ofJudaism, Christianity, and Islam, the Buddhist precepts are very general, expressing morality in spirit rather than letter. Nothing in the five lay precepts can be construed to oppose genetic manipulation, provided that...

Confucianism and Daoism

The Chinese developed two other perspectives on death a return to nature and physical immortality. The Daoist philosopher Chuang Tzu (365-290 b.c.e.) wrote that life and death were two aspects of the same reality, mere differences of form. Death was a natural and welcomed release from life, and was to be neither feared nor desired. Because individuals were reabsorbed into nature, both birth and death were as natural as the progression of the four seasons. Other Daoists were interested in alchemy, macrobiotic diets, exercises, fasting, and meditation. Besides desiring health, youth, and longevity, they wanted immortality. They had several views of the latter the physical body would rise to heaven the real body, not the physical one in the tomb, would rise the physical body would go to the Isles of the Blessed, said to be off the northeast coast of China or the self would emerge from the body at death, like the butterfly from its cocoon, to wander freely about the universe or go to the...

Modern Challenges to Philosophical Ethics

Nietzsche clearly expressed an antipathy to the whole tradition of philosophical ethics, and even if he did defend an iconoclastic ethics of the superman, his writings point the way to an attitude like that of the more recent existentialist Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980). In his Being and Nothingness (1956), Sartre argued that all ethics is based in error and illusion, and he attempted instead to describe the human condition in nonjudgmental, nonmoral terms. Sartre argued that human beings are radically free in their choice of actions and values, and he claimed that all value judgments, because Applied ethics in our contemporary sense is not new Socrates' discussion of the duty of obedience to unjust laws in the Crito and Henry David Thoreau's of civil disobedience are only two of countless historical instances of what we would call applied ethics. Today, we think, civilization is more complicated and our problems are more complex. Still, in facing those problems, bioethicists, business...

The Concept Of Selfwilled Death In Hinduism

According to the traditional law books, funeral rituals were not to be performed for those who died in unnatural ways. This may have been used as a deterrent against suicide the Hindu tradition disapproved of suicide, which was defined as killing oneself because of depression, passion, or uncontrollable circumstance. But unnatural death was not always viewed negatively death by violence (war, murder, or accident) was viewed as powerful, leading to heaven or deification. The type of unnatural death that has relevance for bioethics is the self-willed death, which is given religious sanction. During the late classical and medieval periods, Hinduism came to accept a rational decision either (1) to kill oneself as a way to destroy bad karma, create good karma, and thus attain heaven or liberation or (2) if liberated in life, to remove the body. Such self-willed death (igfamftyu), took many forms. People could walk without food or drink until they dropped dead (mahaprasthana) bury...

Psychobiological Structures of Shamanistic ASC

ASC of other shamanistic healers may involve soul journey, but typically have other psychophysiological and experiential dynamics. Possession ASC of mediums have characteristics of a take over of the person by spirits (Bourguignon, 1976 cf. Goodman, 1988 Lewis, 1988) and temporal lobe symptomology (tremors, seizures, convulsions, and amnesia) (Winkelman, 1986b, 1992). Possession is not a unitary phenomenon, but involves a variety of different psychodynamic processes including dissociation, illness, communication, role enactment, and political struggle (Boddy, 1994 Shekar, 1989). Possession ASCs predominantly occur in complex societies with hierarchical political integration and reflect the psychody-namics of oppression and powerlessness (Bourguignon, 1976 Winkelman, 1986b, 1992). Meditative ASC are characterized by deliberate relaxation (direct parasympa-thetic activation) and focus of attention. Castillo (1991) characterizes meditative practices as involving the differentiation of a...

History Of Mental Retardation

During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Enlightenment period, advances in medicine as well as the philosophical thought of that time played important roles in the conceptualization of mental retardation. In the medical field, many physicians wrote about mental retardation, epilepsy, hydrocephalus, and cretinism. Locke was the first to distinguish between ''idiocy'' and ''insanity,'' and he and Rousseau advocated for the influences of the environment on impacting the outcome of human capacity. This cultural enlightenment served as a catalyst to the scientific study of mental retardation and the development of more humane treatment programs.

Mahayana Buddhist Thought and Practice

Even a brief survey of Mahayana Buddhism, which arose less than 500 years after the historical Buddha's lifetime, strongly suggests that Buddhist bioethics cannot be approached in singular terms. Mahayana refashions Theravada perspectives through the concept of sunyata (emptiness), while adding a new soteriological possibility based on faith birth in a Buddhist paradise as the goal of religious praxis. Thus, Mahayana Buddhism incorporates the ideal of enlightenment achieved through individual self-effort Zen Buddhism is the most well-known exemplar of this as well as potential for salvation through birth in a Buddhist paradise. Particularly noteworthy is the Western Paradise, or Pure Land, of Amitabha Buddha who vows to save all sentient beings that call on him for assistance. Further, anyone monastic or layperson could practice devotion to the other power of Amitabha, emphasizing for the first time nonmonastic practice leading to salvation. In contrast to Theravada emphasis on the...

Cancer Patients Psychotherapy

Many group and individual psychotherapy programs teach specific coping skills designed to help patients reduce cancer-related symptoms such as anxiety, anticipatory nausea and vomiting, and pain. Techniques used include specific self-regulation skills such as self-hypnosis, meditation, biofeedback, and progressive muscle relaxation. Hypnosis is widely used for pain and anxiety control in cancer to attenuate the experience of pain and suffering, and to allow painful emotional material to be examined. Group sessions involving instruction in self-hypnosis provide an effective means of reducing pain and anxiety, and consolidating the major themes of discussion in the group.

Ethical And Legal Issues

Alternative medicine covers a dizzyingly heterogeneous group of medical theories and practices. Alternatives range from the different forms of faith healing, Christian Science, and folk medicine to allegedly scientific systems like homeopathy, chiropractic, and visualization therapy. Also included under the term are acupuncture herbalism iridology the traditional medicines of India, China, Japan, the Philippines, and indigenous peoples holistic medicine naturopathy (treatment using agents or elements found in nature) shamanism yoga radiesthesia (therapy based on detection of natural waves of force emanating from nature) color healing aromatherapy transcendental meditation crystal therapy thalassotherapy (treatment based on sea bathing, sea voyages, etc.) massage therapy midwifery and many others. Certain shared negative elements justify lumping together such diverse medical theories and practices. They include marginal social standing or fringe status exclusion from mainline...

Feedback From Brain Waves

Was launched as a number of commercial ventures began producing Alpha Trainers,'' promising wondrous results without the time needed to master meditation. Though this trend turned out to be transitory, it did trigger an interest in the use of one's own brain wave information as a way of achieving desired changes. Since then, two applications have established themselves within the field of brain wave biofeedback, often called neurofeedback.

Relaxation Techniques

For those finding it difficult to achieve this level of relaxation, many techniques are available. Physicians will frequently respond to meditation, progressive muscle relaxation, selective awareness, self-hypnosis, somatics, yoga, breath control, and biofeedback. Many techniques have audiotapes available to help guide one conveniently through the learning process. For some, religious beliefs and activities may fulfill the need for relaxation. The important common denominator is quiet time that allows for personal reflection, integration, and planning.

Combining Cbt With Religious Beliefs And Practices

Religious practices such as prayer or meditation as a means of enhancing homework assignments. For example, clients can be asked if they believe it is appropriate to pray for the forgiveness of their misdeeds and for the courage and determination to resist doing similar misdeeds in the future. If clients agree, such activities might be offered as the main form of homework or as additional homework. When practitioners and clients share the same religious practices, then those practices, such as prayer, might even be performed in the treatment session. This general approach can be taken with any problem. Consider anxiety disorders and the specific problem of panic. From a CBT perspective, panic is generally agreed to be a function of responding to bodily sensations as if they were not only unpleasant and undesired, but also catastrophic and unbearable. In the standard CBT approach to panic, clients perform activities that are designed to produce bodily sensations similar to those...

Act Components

Much of the time people identify themselves by psychological content. They are the content of their thoughts. As cognitive content is defused, more emphasis is placed in ACT on self as context. The self as context is the observing self. It is the experience of an I that does not change or judge, but just experiences. Meditation and mindfulness exercises are used to help the client experience consciousness itself as the context for private experiences, not as the content of those experiences. Self as context work provides a safe psychological place from which acceptance, willingness, and defusion are possible.

Kirk Strosahl

Cognitive fusion The act of perceiving private experiences such as thoughts and feelings from the perspective structured by the private event itself rather than the perspective of an observer of that event as a process. Reducing fusion is a key target of meditation, mindfulness, and deliteraliza-tion interventions in ACT. cultural change agenda The culturally sanctioned model most clients bring into therapy holds that the goal is to gain control of and eliminate negative personal content. This agenda for changing from an unhealthy person with issues to a healthy person without issues has the paradoxical effect of increasing suffering. literality The capacity of representational thought and language to take on literal meaning and for the derived stimulus functions of referents to dominate over other sources of behavior. An example is anticipatory panic attacks, which result from simply imagining being in a panic associated situation, such as a mall or elevator, and then taking those...

Cyathea

Tree fern crosiers offer the viewer some of the best fern-watching, which easily ranks with whale- or bird-watching as an absorbing, even an exciting, visual sharing of the life of a fellow species. Actually, the thrills of the ferner, if gathered at a more leisurely pace, are also far more sustained than any to be had in the sudden sightings of the birder or the ocular whaler. It takes but a little imagination. One may see fern crosiers as heads bowed in meditation. I find it easy to suppose in them an intelligence serene and yet aware, a gathering of will toward the coming season of the fern, the big push, the pteridotechnic explosion upward and outward. This promise, appreciable and ponderable in the furled crosiers of any fern, is enlarged and intensified, not at all surprisingly, in the huge crosiers of tree ferns. Those in the picture are as big as the head of some nonhuman critter or another. I am disinclined to anthropomorphize them. With their dense pelt of palest...

Radical Charges

It is not possible to tread a safe path into, through, and out of partisan politics. Not only will principled argument not be equal to the task, but it also might occasionally be a hindrance. Standing on principle is simply another way of sitting on some substantive ground and pretending that it is more solid and independent than it actually is. Indeed, being partisan is not the problem it is what one is partisan about that is the only real issue worth caring or complaining about. Indeed, a large part of my critique is intended to encourage judges and jurists to be more politically candid and to drop the intellectual pretence that a principled stance has merit, regardless of the substantive content of that principle, and that it can lead to enlightenment or universal justice. There is no Big Plan and anyone offering one should be immediately suspect. There are only situation-specific and contingent commitments that continually change in substance and recommendation. However, it has...

Topography

Larger amplitude frontal alpha often occurs as subjects become more relaxed, for example, by employing relaxation or meditation techniques. Alpha rhythms of unusually large amplitude or exhibiting frontal dominance may be associated with mental retardation and some types of epilepsy. Large amplitude and dominant frontal alpha rhythm may also be recorded in some coma and anesthesia states. In summary, frontal alpha rhythms of moderate amplitude are common in healthy relaxed subjects with closed eyes, but very large frontal alpha is associated with disease or anesthesia. The physiological relationships between these disparate alpha phenomena are unknown, but they appear to share some underlying physiological mechanisms since their frequencies and widespread distributions are similar.

Jainism

Jainism is an Indian religion that developed about the sixth century b.c.e. The Jains speak of the twenty-four tirthankaras, such as their founder Mahavira, who are the makers of the path or causeway to liberation, enabling people to cross over samsara. The Jain view of death is related to its view of liberation Because karmas (actions) cause bondage in the cycles of existence (reincarnation), they should be eliminated by fasting and meditation leading to the realization of liberation, the radical autonomy of pure consciousness (kaivalya). THE JAIN CONCEPT OF SELF-WILLED DEATH. According to tradition, Mahavira fasted to death. Henceforth, the ideal form of death for Jain monastics was a final fast to death known by different names bhaktapratyakhyana, ingirii, prayopagamana, samadhi, pancapada, sallekhana, aradhana depending on variants in the practice such as whether there is the assistance of others, whether one dies meditating or chanting, whether the...

Secular Rationalism

Kant epitomized the Enlightenment's elevation of Reason as a force of human betterment and a method of transforming culture (Cassirer). Ever since the Enlightenment, Reason has provided a principle for critique of traditional culture, social institutions, and customary practices. Over time, critique of the traditional has gradually given way to the articulation of new principles of legitimacy. Since the eighteenth century,

Varying Worldviews

Across the Western world, one observes considerable variation in the adoption of principles of instrumental activism and secular rationalism. Parsons concentrated on a predominant American pattern, but one that many parts of Western civilization, including important groups in American society, have adopted only with qualifications. Catholic societies have generally shown more attachment to tradition, to historical continuity, and to sustaining community structures, and thus less activism in transforming traditional institutions and less individualism. Lutheran societies have given more emphasis to the inner moral cultivation of the individual and less to mastery of the outer world. Fundamentalist Protestantism has been less accepting of secular rationalism and has tended to maintain the emphasis of the Reformation on immediate mastery of morally problematic situations. Anglo-American versions of Enlightenment rationalism have been profoundly individualistic, while French rationalism...

Truths and Methods

Hermeneutics concerns itself with language and thought. It is an attempt to explore that space between words and thoughts in which confusion and misunderstanding can take hold. It is not only that there is an ineradicable gap between ideas and utterance, it is that each seems to inhabit the other so thoroughly that one does not stand prior to or independent from the other. Ideas and words are, if not entirely reducible to each other, so intertwined that any attempt to concentrate on one without the other is destined to result in less, not more, understanding. All of this would be difficult enough if such efforts took place in immediate, face-to-face encounters in a static world, but they become even more problematic when it is recalled that they occur in a world constantly on the move. This means that intentions, words, meanings, and ideas begin to slip and slide. As communication is a social practice, efforts to say what you mean and mean what you say are hostage to the social and...

If c ibid

Speak at the precise moment when vocal communication became necessary or simply useful to explain procedures of tool-making, or in hunting, when hands are busy with weapons. Conditions sufficient for speech to appear are thus reduced to the pragmatic usefulness of language. Only Leroi-Gourhan145 resisted this simplification he was cautious enough to emphasise the role of the neurological basis of language, which could not have emerged from nothingness solely under the pressure of a need, had it not been preceded by the formation of different cortical structures essential to the use of words.146

Historical Aspects

The idea of eugenics dated back at least to Plato, and discussion of actually achieving human biological melioration had been boosted by the Enlightenment. In Galton's day, the science of genetics had not yet emerged Gregor Mendel's 1865 paper, the foundation of that discipline, was not only unappreciated but also generally unnoticed by the scientific community. Nevertheless, Darwin's theory of evolution taught that species did change as a result of natural selection, and it was well known that through artificial selection farmers and flower fanciers could obtain permanent breeds of animals and plants strong in particular characters. Galton thus supposed that the human race could be similarly improved that through eugenics, human beings could take charge of their own evolution.

When Ronnie Met Dick

It will be remembered that, for Dworkin, adjudication is a philosophical adventure of the grandest kind in which formal integrity and abstract coherence are both the tools and goal of intrepid jurists. Combining ethical optimism and evolutionary inevitability, Dworkin glosses the messy, episodic, and self-correcting workings of the common law as a polished, integrated, and teleological process. Many lawyers and jurists reject such scholarly spiritualism and its claims that law has a miraculous suprahistorical life. Even if such an approach were once viable, it is increasingly untenable in a contemporary world in which lawyers and society at large are increasingly diverse in composition, interests, and objectives. In contrast, pragmatic critics argue that common law adjudication is much more earthly, less preposterous, and thoroughly practical in aspiration and execution. They maintain that Dworkin's plea for a 'justificatory ascent' to some abstract remove from which it might be...

Paint It Black

Construed in this way, jurisprudence soon found itself on the familiar terrain of many traditional philosophical conundrums and, in the process, has become dominated by philosophical preoccupations. Mindful of law's blackletter tradition and the challenge of maintaining democratic legitimacy for courts in a society in which important social questions are routinely left to judicial resolution, jurists have considered a central part of thejurisprudential project to develop an epistemology of law How is it possible to have knowledge about law or to know what counts as knowledge of or about law What counts as good and bad knowledge about law Jurisprudence has adopted a traditional and philosophical stance in developing a series of truth claims about the legal enterprise. All the problems of legal philosophy or jurisprudence have tended to begin and, in some cases, to end with this inquiry Most of the important arguments in legal thought are epistemological in nature.18 What begins as a...

History of the

At the same time, more optimistic visions of health preservation and rehabilitation elaborated by Enlightenment thinkers suggested that sickness, instead of an inevitable, sinful, and often long-term human burden, could be controlled and eliminated. In addition to their traditional moral and physical aims, hospitals were now envisioned as institutions for physical rehabilitation and cure, places of early rather than last resort, especially for military personnel and the labor force. This agenda implied a greater involvement of the healthcare professions with large sectors of the population hitherto without such contacts. Under the new banner of scientific medicine, hospitals became the institutions of first rather than last resort. Thanks to the increasingly sophisticated diagnostic and therapeutic procedures offered in hospitals after 1900, optimistic Enlightenment notions of physical rehabilitation and cure were becoming a reality. Radiology, electrocardiography, and the clinical...

The Folk Sector

The folk sector also includes secular and spiritual healers, with spiritual healers describing their practice as laying on of hands, prayer or meditation, whether or not the patient is present. The NHS recognizes that some of their patients may request a spiritual healer and have an agreement in more than 1500 NHS hospitals for the healing member to attend if so requested (Helman, 1990).

Buddhism

The imagery of crossing the ocean or river of samsara to the other shore of enlightenment is used by Buddhists as well as Hindus. Theravada (one of the main branches of Buddhism, which purportedly continues the early tradition and is still found in Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam) metaphorically considers the Buddha's teaching (dhamma) a boat and the individual its pilot. For instance, in Burma, a coin called ferry fare is placed in the mouth of a dead person (Spiro). meaning. Later, on the verge of enlightenment, he recalled his own previous lives, meditated on the cycles of rebirth common to all creatures, and came to understand that all beings are propelled into repeated lives by ignorance and desire. The Buddha spent his life teaching others how to blow out (nibbana) the flame of ignorance and desire by realizing that all beings are composite and impermanent (subject to suffering, decay, and death). In the final analysis, there was...

Covert Modeling

Covert behaviors can serve a variety of functions. First, they may act as antecedents of other behaviors. They become the covert cues for subsequent behavior. For example, fear and avoidance of many objects are due to covert images of what might happen if one is placed in the fear-producing situation. The most prominent examples of changing the cuing functions of these covert images are systematic desensitization and flooding or implosion therapy. Both of these procedures have been shown by research to be effective in modifying subsequent behavior, though probably not for the reasons originally thought. In systematic desen-sitization, relaxation is used to change the covert cues that arouse the fear and avoidance so that it is no longer aroused to the same degree, beginning with covert cues low on the anxiety-producing hierarchy and gradually moving higher. In flooding, one begins at the top of the fear-producing hierarchy and uses repeated exposure through imagery to the...

Narcolepsy

While walking or stretching may temporarily alleviate the sensations, current treatment of these disorders has leaned toward medications such as benzodiazepines, opi-oids, and dopaminergic agents. From a behavioral perspective, some symptom relief may be derived from practice of good sleep hygiene (Hening, 2002). For individuals with a mild case of RLS, psychoeducation on sleep, wake, and activity regulation, sleep setting and influences, can assist the individual to regulate behaviors that may be contributing to or exacerbating the dysfunctional movements. These behaviors include regular and adequate sleep hours, as sleep deprivation tends to aggravate RLS. Exercise has been found to assist with the modification of RLS, yet only a moderate amount of exercise has been found to be beneficial since excessive exercise may cause increased exacerbation of symptoms (Hening, 2002). Although behavioral therapies show promise in the decrease of symptoms, empirical support for these findings is...

Grief And Loss

While grief has traditionally been viewed as a letting go process that is aimed at detaching oneself from the deceased or lost object, more recent theorists propose the grief process as an accommodation to the reality of life without the lost object. Instead of detaching completely, the idea of building continuing bonds is proposed (Klass, Silverman, & Nickman, 1996). This entails maintaining a connection with the lost object, which may be a lost role or identity, even though the connection takes on a different form.

The Oxford Debate

Lane's Hydropathic Clinic. The Oxford session was to be chaired by Reverend Robert Stevens Henslow, Darwin's old mentor from Cambridge. While the topic was supposed to be the subtle scientific implications of Darwin's evolutionary account, the agenda was much broader and more polarized. It pitted the established church order against an emerging scientific new wave Who was to speak for Nature, the clerics, or the scientists In so doing, this Victorian debate set the tone and terms for intellectual debate about evolution and much more over the next century and a half. Ironically, in a building that was known as Oxford's new cathedral of science and whose construction had been made possible by biblical funds, intellectual enlightenment seemed too readily sacrificed to personal vanity.

Peripheral Tissues

Evidence that treatment of hyperlipidemia influences CHD is substantial. The methods of treating hyperlipidemia have varied from diet to drugs, surgery, meditation, and multiple risk factor reduction. The conclusion is that treatment of hyperlipidemia improves CHD morbidity and mortality. The Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trial, started in the 1970s, examined 4000 men without evidence of CHD but with hypercholester-olemia, randomized to receive cholestyramine or placebo. After 7 years, despite a relatively minor difference in cholesterol levels, there was a 20 decrease in CHD in the drug-treated group.

Reduce Your Stress

Hard scientific data is lacking, but some clinics in the United States claim to have increased fertility rates with meditation, yoga, visualization, and relaxation techniques. We may not completely understand how it works, but many health care providers believe that an important mind and body connection exists. Why not try it out and reap the benefits You may want to enroll in a yoga or meditation class. Perhaps you could try something as simple as a deep breathing relaxation exercise each day. Some women find comfort in quiet time and prayer. Other women enjoy the interaction of a support group or learn stress-management techniques from a trained counselor.

Potential Meditational Therapy Life

Potential Meditational Therapy Life

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