Human Neurological Diseases Studied by Microarray Technology

Published microarray studies of human tissue and neurological disease exist in MS (Baranzini and Hauser, 2002 Dyment and Ebers, 2002 Lock et al., 2002 Mycko et al., 2003 Ramanathan et al., 2001 Steinman, 2001 Steinman and Zamvil, 2003 Sturzebecher et al., 2003 Tompkins and Miller, 2002 Whitney etal., 1999, 2001), central nervous system tumors (Chopra et al., 2003 Hernan et al., 2003 MacDonald etal., 2001 Mayanil etal., 2001 Nutt etal., 2003 Pomeroy etal., 2002 Yoon etal., 2002), AD (Colangelo...

Microarray Analysis of Human Brain Disorders

To date, most of the brain microarray experiments have focused on animal models. There is a substantial body of literature on gene expression changes observed in in vivo and in vitro disease models (Grunblatt et al., 2001 Toyooka et al., 2002 Zhou et al., 2003), effects of drug treatment (Kontkanen et al., 2002 Yamada et al., 2001, 2002), addiction research (Ammon et al., 2003 Thibault et al., 2000, 2001 Yuferov et al., 2003), transcriptome changes in the developing brain (Karsten et al., 2003...

Challenges in Studies of the Postmortem Human Brain

Analyzing the human brain transcriptome and interpreting the outcome of these experiments is a challenging task. Although many of the following considerations are not unique for genomic experiments and apply in general to postmortem brain research, they have a major impact on planning and interpreting the outcome of microarray experiments. A. The Starting Material is Postmortem Tissue In the absence of viable animal models for most of the psychiatric disorders, analysis of human postmortem...

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Scale Normalization

Where g(A) is a loess curve fitted to spots from the MSP series, g (A) is a loess for print-tip group i, and w(A) is usually defined as the proportion of spots less than intensity A. The adjustment is then done as before. The idea is to increasingly use the MSP curve at higher intensities, where there are fewer spots and the print-tip specific curves may be more unreliable. We have discussed normalization within slides, but sometimes there are large differences in scale when comparing data...

Slides and Probes

If one chooses a commercial platform, there is no need to consider slide choice. However, if one prints arrays in-house, choosing appropriate array slides is essential. A typical cDNA microarray consists of densely deposited PCR-amplified cDNA clones or expressed sequence tags (ESTs) onto a solid surface, such as specially coated silicon or glass slides. These amplified elements (probes) are noncovalently deposited on the slide surfaces that are optimized for DNA attachment and minimal...

Volume

Energy Metabolism in the Brain Leif Hertz and Gerald A. Dienel The Cerebral Glucose-Fatty Acid Cycle Evolutionary Roots, Regulation, and (Patho) physiological Importance Kurt Heininger Expression, Regulation, and Functional Role of Glucose Transporters (GLUTs) in Brain Donard S. Dwyer, Susan J. Vannucci, and Ian A. Simpson Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Promotes Neuronal Glucose Utilization During Brain Development and Repair Processes CNS Sensing and Regulation of Peripheral Glucose Levels Barry...