Box 23 Sugars are more accurately shown as ring structures

When dissolved in water, the aldehyde or ketone group reacts with a hydroxyl group on the fifth carbon to give a cyclic form. d-Glucose is shown in both forms below. The cyclic form of the molecule is shown below as a Haworth projection. The idea is that the ring is orientated at 90° to the page, with the edge which is shown thicker towards you, and the top edge away from you. Notice that there are even two forms of d-Glucose! Depending on whether the -OH on carbon-1 is below or above the plane of the ring, we have a- or |3-d-Glucose.

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