The biological agent responsible for bread production is yeast. In fact baker's yeast and brewer's yeast are just different strains of the same species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In breadmaking, aerobic, rather than anaerobic conditions are favoured, so sugar present in the dough is converted all the way to carbon dioxide rather than to alcohol. It is this

Table 17.2 Types of cheese

Soft Semisoft Semihard Hard

Unripened Roquefort Cheddar Parmesan

Mozzarella Stilton Emmentaler Pecorino

Cottage Ripened Camembert Brie

Cheeses are classified according to their texture. Unripened cheeses are those that have not undergone the ageing or ripening process, during which additional flavours develop.

MICROORGANISMS AS FOOD Table 17.3 Fermented food products



Fermentative microorganisms





Soy sauce





Cocoa, chocolate

Cabbage Olives

Ground beef, pork


Soybean curd



Wine, cider Cacao beans

Leuconostoc brevis, Lactobacillus plantarum

Leuconostoc brevis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus

Leuconostoc brevis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus spp. Aspergillus oryzae, Saccharomyces rouxii, Pediococcus soyae Rhizopus oligosporus Gluconobacter, Saccharomyces, etc. Aspergillus oryzae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Acetobacter, Gluconobacter Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida rugosa, Acetobacter, Geotrichum

* Tempeh is a solid fermented soya bean cake that forms an important part of the diet of many Indonesians.

that causes the bread to rise. Any small amount of ethanol that may be produced is evaporated during the baking process.

Many other popular foodstuffs are the result of microbial fermentation processes (see Table 17.3). These include vinegar, soy sauce and sauerkraut. Silage is animal fodder made from the fermentation of grass and other plant material by the action of lactic acid bacteria.

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