The biological agent responsible for bread production is yeast. In fact baker's yeast and brewer's yeast are just different strains of the same species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In breadmaking, aerobic, rather than anaerobic conditions are favoured, so sugar present in the dough is converted all the way to carbon dioxide rather than to alcohol. It is this
Table 17.2 Types of cheese
Soft Semisoft Semihard Hard
Unripened Roquefort Cheddar Parmesan
Mozzarella Stilton Emmentaler Pecorino
Cheeses are classified according to their texture. Unripened cheeses are those that have not undergone the ageing or ripening process, during which additional flavours develop.
MICROORGANISMS AS FOOD Table 17.3 Fermented food products
Ground beef, pork
Wine, cider Cacao beans
Leuconostoc brevis, Lactobacillus plantarum
Leuconostoc brevis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus
Leuconostoc brevis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus spp. Aspergillus oryzae, Saccharomyces rouxii, Pediococcus soyae Rhizopus oligosporus Gluconobacter, Saccharomyces, etc. Aspergillus oryzae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Acetobacter, Gluconobacter Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida rugosa, Acetobacter, Geotrichum
* Tempeh is a solid fermented soya bean cake that forms an important part of the diet of many Indonesians.
that causes the bread to rise. Any small amount of ethanol that may be produced is evaporated during the baking process.
Many other popular foodstuffs are the result of microbial fermentation processes (see Table 17.3). These include vinegar, soy sauce and sauerkraut. Silage is animal fodder made from the fermentation of grass and other plant material by the action of lactic acid bacteria.
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