Contents

Preface ix

Acknowledgements xi

Part I Introduction 1

1 Microbiology: What, Why and How? 3

What is microbiology? 3

Why is microbiology important? 3

How do we know? Microbiology in perspective: to the 'golden age' and beyond 4

Light microscopy 10

Electron microscopy 15

2 Biochemical Principles 17

Atomic structure 17

Acids, bases, and pH 25

Biomacromolecules 27

Test yourself 48

3 Cell Structure and Organisation 51

The procaryotic cell 54

The eucaryotic cell 65

Cell division in procaryotes and eucaryotes 72

Test yourself 75

Part II Microbial Nutrition, Growth and Metabolism 77

4 Microbial Nutrition and Cultivation 79

Nutritional categories 81

How do nutrients get into the microbial cell? 83

Laboratory cultivation of microorganisms 84

Test yourself 89

5 Microbial Growth 91

Estimation of microbial numbers 91

Factors affecting microbial growth 96

The kinetics of microbial growth 101

Growth in multicellular microorganisms 105

Test yourself 106

6 Microbial Metabolism 109

Why is energy needed? 109

Enzymes 110

Principles of energy generation 118

Anabolic reactions 148

The regulation of metabolism 154

Test yourself 155

Part III Microbial Diversity 157

A few words about classification 158

7 Procaryote Diversity 163

Domain: Archaea 164

Domain: Bacteria 169

Bacteria and human disease 192

Test yourself 195

8 The Fungi 197

General biology of the Fungi 198

Classification of the Fungi 199

Fungi and disease 208

Test yourself 209

9 The Protista 211

'The Algae' 211

'The Protozoa' 224

The slime moulds and water moulds (the fungus-like protists) 230

Protistan taxonomy: a modern view 234

Test yourself 234

10 Viruses 237

What are viruses? 237

Viral structure 238

Classification of viruses 243

Viral replication cycles 244

Viroids 255

Prions 256

Cultivating viruses 256

Viral diseases in humans 259

Test yourself 264

Part IV Microbial Genetics 267

11 Microbial Genetics 269

How do we know genes are made of DNA? 269

DNA replication 271

What exactly do genes do? 275

Regulation of gene expression 285

The molecular basis of mutations 288

Genetic transfer in microorganisms 299

Test yourself 312

12 Microorganisms in Genetic Engineering 315

Introduction 315

Plasmid cloning vectors 319

Bacteriophages as cloning vectors 323

Expression vectors 326

Eucaryotic cloning vectors 328

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 333

Test yourself 335

Part V Control of Microorganisms 337

13 The Control of Microorganisms 339

Sterilisation 339

Disinfection 344

The kinetics of cell death 347

Test yourself 351

14 Antimicrobial Agents 353

Antibiotics 355

Resistance to antibiotics 364

Antibiotic susceptibility testing 367

Antifungal and antiviral agents 368

The future 371

Test yourself 372

Part VI Microorganisms in the Environment 375

15 Microbial Associations 377

Microbial associations with animals 377

Microbial associations with plants 379

Microbial associations with other microorganisms 383

Test yourself 386

16 Microorganisms in the Environment 389

The carbon cycle 390

The nitrogen cycle 390

The sulphur cycle 393

Phosphorus 394

The microbiology of soil 394

The microbiology of freshwater 396

The microbiology of seawater 397

Detection and isolation of microorganisms in the environment 398

Beneficial effects of microorganisms in the environment 399

Harmful effects of microorganisms in the environment 402

Test yourself 403

Part VII Microorganisms in Industry 405

17 Industrial and Food Microbiology 407

Microorganisms and food 407

Microorganisms as food 413

The microbial spoilage of food 414

Microorganisms in the production of biochemicals 414

Products derived from genetically engineered microorganisms 418

Microorganisms in wastewater treatment and bioremediation 420

Microorganisms in the mining industry 420

Test yourself 422

Glossary 425

Appendix 447

Further Reading 449

Index 454

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