Products derived from genetically engineered microorganisms

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In Chapter 12 we saw how recombinant DNA technology can be used to genetically modify microorganisms so that they produce commercially important proteins such as human insulin. This is done by incorporating the gene for the desired protein into an

PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MICROORGANISMS 419

PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM GENETICALLY ENGINEERED MICROORGANISMS 419

Bioreactor Design

Figure 17.7 A continuous flow stirred tank reactor. Parameters such as pH and concentrations of specific metabolites are closely monitored to ensure the maintenance of optimum conditions. Outlets allow for the collection of samples during fermentation as well as the collection of cells and medium at the conclusion of the reaction. Addition and collections are carried out under aseptic conditions. From Prescott, LM, Harley, JP & Klein, DA: Microbiology 5th edn, McGraw Hill, 2002. Reproduced by permission of the publishers

Figure 17.7 A continuous flow stirred tank reactor. Parameters such as pH and concentrations of specific metabolites are closely monitored to ensure the maintenance of optimum conditions. Outlets allow for the collection of samples during fermentation as well as the collection of cells and medium at the conclusion of the reaction. Addition and collections are carried out under aseptic conditions. From Prescott, LM, Harley, JP & Klein, DA: Microbiology 5th edn, McGraw Hill, 2002. Reproduced by permission of the publishers

Table 17.6 Medically important proteins made by recombinant microorganisms

Protein

Application

Produced in

Insulin

Treatment of Type 1 diabetes

E. coli

Human growth

Treatment of pituitary dwarfism

E. coli

hormone

Hepatitis B

Vaccination of susceptible personnel

Saccharomyces

vaccine

e.g. healthcare workers, drug users

cerevisiae

Epidermal

Treatment of wounds, burns

E. coli

growth factor

Acyltransferase

Used in synthesis of ovarian cancer

E. coli

drug taxol

Endostatin

Antitumour agent

Pichia pastoris

(yeast)

appropriate cloning vector, and inserting it into a host cell such as E. coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The initial application of this technology was in the micro-bial production of medically important proteins such as insulin and epidermal growth factor (Table 17.6), however other proteins may also be produced by these means. These include enzymes used in diagnostic and analytical applications, where a higher purity of preparation is required than, for example, the enzymes used in detergents. These are often derived originally from other microorganisms; for example the thermostable DNA polymerase from Thermus aquaticus used in PCR is now commonly made by recombinant E. coli cells that have been transformed with the T. aquaticus gene. Many of the more recent recombinant human proteins to be developed for therapeutic use have been too complex for expression in a microbial system (e.g. Factor VIII), so it has been necessary to employ cultured mammalian cells.

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Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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  • jay
    What are the product derived from genetically engineerined microrganism?
    9 months ago

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