Test yourself

1__are enzymes that cut DNA at specific_ sequences in the__backbone.

2 Joining together DNA fragments from different sources produces a_

molecule.

3 DNA fragments with__tend to join together because of their complementary single-stranded overhangs.

4 In order to gain access to a host cell and be replicated, a fragment of DNA must be taken up by a_molecule.

5__enable us to detect which host cells have been transformed. A commonly used example is resistance to_ . By inserting foreign DNA at this point, recombinants can be detected by_

6 Another name for a polylinker is a___.

7 A short sequence of labelled single-stranded DNA used to locate a specific target sequence is known as a__

8 The removable central section of the phage Lambda genome is known as a _fragment.

9 Bacteriophage_is a useful vector if DNA is required in a_

10 Cloning vectors combining features of plasmids and phage Lambda are called

_vectors incorporate foreign DNA at a site that is surrounded by essential signal sequences.

12 E. coli is not a suitable host for the expression of complex eucaryotic proteins because it lacks the molecular machinery to carry out_modifications such as__

13 _DNA contains only those sequences that are involved in coding for a polypeptide product.

14 Yeast plasmids are based on a naturally occurring sequence called the

15 _vectors are able to replicate in both_and_cells.

16 A virus found to be useful in the expression of eucaryotic genes is the __It is grown in cultured_cells.

17 The soil bacterium A. tumefaciens contains a plasmid called_, which causes crown gall disease. Part of it, the_ , integrates into host chromosomes.

18 Genes from Bacillus thuringiensis coding for_have been introduced into plant cells, making them_resistant.

19 The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) comprises repeated cycles of the following three steps:_,_of primers and_by_

DNA polymerase.

20 PCR results in an_increase in the number of copies of the target sequence.

Part V

Control of Microorganisms

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