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The Revised Authoritative Guide To Vaccine Legal Exemptions

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1 Unlike bacteria, viruses are able to pass through a__

2 Viruses are incapable of_except when occupying a host cell.

3 A_is another name for an intact virus particle.

4 The nucleic acid of a virus is surrounded by a protein coat or__In some forms, this may in turn be surrounded by an__

5 In some types of_virus, the genome is segmented.

6 Parvoviruses are unusual among DNA viruses in having a _

_genome.

7 Capsids may be either_or_in shape.

8 The_scheme of classification orders viruses in terms of their method of mRNA production.

9 The replication cycle of the T-even phages is described as_because it results in the_of the host cell.

10 The time between infection of a host cell and the release of newly-synthesised viral particles is called the___

11 The DNA of_phages becomes integrated into the host genome, where it is known as a__

12 Enveloped viruses are taken into the host cell either by_with the cell membrane or by a process of__

13 The viral envelope is formed by the viral particle being engulfed in the host __, into which proteins encoded by the_are inserted.

14 In order for the genome of ss-RNA virus to be replicated, a_strand must be formed to act as a template.

15 Retroviruses contain the enzyme reverse _, which can synthesise

_from an_template.

16 The genome of most plant viruses is made of__

17 Subviral particles found in plants and comprising RNA but no_are known as__

18 When bacteriophages infect bacterial cells, their presence can be detected as _on an agar plate.

19 The envelope of the influenza virus has two types of protein spike made of _and_that play a part in the infectious process.

20 The surface antigens of viruses often undergo a gradual modification known as__, which helps to protect them against the host immune system.

21 Most cases of viral gastroenteritis in humans are caused by the__

22 Shingles and cold sores, caused by herpesviruses, are examples of_

viral infections.

23 _infections of humans are transmitted from an animal source.

24 _vaccines contain 'live' viruses whose_has been reduced.

25 The hepatitis B vaccine is an example of a_vaccine, which depends on stimulating the immune response without introducing the whole virus particle.

Part IV

Microbial Genetics

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