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1 Following Fleming's discovery of penicillin,_and_were largely responsible for developing it and bringing it to large scale production.

2 It is essential for an antimicrobial agent to have_toxicity, otherwise host cells will be affected as well as microorganisms.

3 Penicillins and cephalosporins both belong to the_group of antibiotics. They bind to the_enzyme, preventing_of peptido-


4 _penicillins such as ampicillin have been developed to overcome some of the problems inherent in naturally occurring forms, such as _and narrow__

5 _was the first antibiotic to shown to be effective against Gramnegative bacteria.

6 _have a particularly broad range of specificity and act by preventing extension of the peptide chain during protein synthesis.

7 Antibiotics that affect protein synthesis target the differences between pro-caryotic and eucaryotic__

8 Aminoglycoside antibiotics inhibit protein synthesis by preventing attachment of the__subunit.

9 _is a member of the macrolide group of antibiotics, and is often used instead of penicillin in the treatment of staphylococcal and streptococcal infections in children.

10 Rifamycins affect mRNA production by inhibiting the enzyme _

11 One of the antibiotic resistant organisms most frequently found in hospitals is

MRSA (__Staphylococcus aureus). Infections originating in such environments are termed_infections.

12 _is used against antibiotic-resistant infections; however bacteria have been found that are also resistant to this agent.

13 Some bacteria are able to pump antibiotics out of the cell before they have had time to act. They are able to do this by means of enzymes called__

14 Antibiotic resistance acquired through bacterial conjugation is described as _resistance.

15 Genes for enzymes that inactivate antibiotics are usually carried on__

16 The lowest concentration of an antibiotic that prevents growth of a microorganism is described as its____

17 In the disc diffusion method,_of_develop as the antibiotic diffuses outwards.

18 The usefulness of polyene antibiotics in fungal infections is limited because human cells may also be affected. Such compounds are said to have a low

19 The antiviral agent acyclovir works by acting as a___It inhibits viral___

20 _has been used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of AIDS. It acts by inhibiting viral___

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