Test yourself

1 The number of protons in an atom of an element is called the _of that element.

2 The sum of the protons and neutrons in an atom is the . of the element.

3 The transfer of an electron from one atom to another so that both achieve a full outer electron shell is called_bonding.

bonding involves the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons.

_times more acidic than one with a

6 Possession of a functional group such as phosphate or aldehyde makes a molecule more_and therefore more readily_in water.

7 Simple carbohydrates may be classed on the basis of whether they have a

_or_group, or according to how many_atoms they possess.

8 Sugars are joined together by_linkages.

9 No matter how long a peptide chain grows, it always has an_group at one end and a_group at the other.

10 An example of a negatively charged amino acid is__

11 Disulphide bonds are formed between residues of the amino acid__

12 Secondary protein structure is brought about by the formation of_

bonds between a_group and a_group.

13 Naturally occurring amino acids are all the_-isomer. This results in an a-helix taking on a_configuration for maximum stability.

14 Heating or treatment with certain chemicals cause proteins to lose their three-dimensional structure and become__

15 A short stretch of double stranded DNA has 52 adenine residues and 61

guanine residues. There are therefore_cytosine residues and a total of_hydrogen bonds joining the two strands.

16 The arrangement of the two strands of a DNA molecule is described as

17 The nucleotides of RNA contain_instead of thymine.

18 Lipids are a diverse group of molecules, sharing the common property of _in__

19 Phospholipids are described as_because their molecules have both polar and non-polar regions.

20 In fats, fatty acids are joined to glycerol via_linkages.

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