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General Concepts And Objectives Of Factor Analysis

The material discussed in this chapter, as well as in the remainder of the book, will be presented in the context of the field of psychology. Often the more specific context of the study of mental abilities will be used for demonstrations, examples, and explanations of concepts. This context represents the field in which the primary development and use of factor analysis has occurred. Thus, we will generally consider problems where the entities under study are people, and the variables of interest are attributes of those people. It should be kept in mind, however, that factor analysis is valuable and applicable in a wide range of other settings. It has been used widely in other social sciences, education, business fields, biological sciences, etc. Thus, though much of the theory and methodology has developed within psychology, factor analysis can be applied beneficially to subject matter from many other disciplines. To begin to develop an understanding of the type of problem to which...

Designing And Conducting Factor Analytic Studies

A brief description of an illustration of a series of factor analytic studies may help to further clarify the points made in the preceding paragraph. Suppose a researcher wishes to investigate the factorial structure in the domain of mental abilities. Such a project would begin with the assembly of a large battery of tests of a wide range of abilities. The experimenter probably would have some prior notions about basic internal attributes which might exist, such as mathematical, verbal, analytical, and spatial abilities, etc. The initial battery of attributes would include attributes that were thought to represent these factors, along with a variety of other attributes intended to represent the range of abilities in the domain. As stated above, the objective is to use a large and diverse initial battery so as not to overlook the existence of important common factors. Of course, the degree to which the prior notions are formed and supported will influence the size and diversity of the...

Judgment Reasoning and Problem Solving

Thinking played a prominent role in early psychology. The structuralist school of Wundt and Titchener was almost consumed by a fruitless debate over imageless thought, whereas Oswald Kulpe's act psychology attempted to characterize the process of thinking rather than the static elements of thoughts. Like other mentalistic topics, thinking dropped out of sight with the rise of behaviorism, but interest in the topic was preserved by Gestalt psychologists such as Kohler, who worked on problem solving in chimpanzees. Whereas behaviorists construed thinking as a matter of gradual trial-and-error learning, the Gestaltists emphasized sudden insights produced by a cognitive restructuring of the problem at hand. In England, Frederick C. Bartlett argued that perception and memory were essentially exercises in problem sol-ving the problem being to construct mental representations of the present and to reconstruct mental representations of the past. After World War II, the cognitive revolution...

Contemporary Treatment Practices

Cognitive therapy components aim to change the child's maladaptive beliefs, images, thoughts, and self-talk which influence their behavior and perceptions. The therapist often does so through eliciting what the child is thinking when experiencing negative mood states or during upsetting events. The child engages in affect education exercises (practice recognizing and differentiating feelings) and learns about the cognitive model in which thoughts impact feelings and behavior. The therapist helps the child identify maladaptive or distorted thinking and engage in cognitive restructuring activities. These activities include identifying the type of distortion being exhibited (e.g., overgeneralization, mind reading), weighing the evidence for and against the thought or belief, testing the belief through behavioral experiments, and substituting more realistic interpretations. To help children interact more effectively with their environment, they are taught problemsolving skills...

Guthries Theory Of Behavior

(flooding) method, and the method of counter conditioning (cf., J. Wolpe's modern technique of systematic desensitization that is based on Guthrie's earlier methods). In Guthrie 's theory, motives act to provide maintaining stimuli to keep the organism active until a goal is reached, and conduct is organized into sequences in which the individual makes plans and carries them out. Guthrie followed the lead of C. S. Sherrington and R. S. Woodworth in considering sequences of behavior as composed of preparatory responses followed by consummatory responses where these anticipatory responses are conditioned to maintaining stimuli. According to Guthrie, reward is a secondary principle and is effective because it removes the organism from the stimulating situation in which the correct response has been made. Reward does not strengthen the correct response but prevents its weakening because no new response can become attached to the cues that led to the correct response. The effects of...

Intentional attunement embodied simulation and empathy

Of course, embodied simulation is not the only functional mechanism underpinning social cognition. The same actions performed by others in different contexts can lead the observer to radically different interpretations. Social stimuli can also be understood on the basis of the explicit cognitive elaboration of their contextual perceptual features, by exploiting previously acquired knowledge about relevant aspects of the situation to be analysed. Our capacity of attributing false beliefs to others, our most sophisticated mind reading abilities, likely involve the activation of large regions of our brain, certainly larger than a putative and domain-specific theory of mind module. Embodied simulation and the still poorly understood more sophisticated mentalizing cognitive skills, however, are not mutually exclusive. Embodied simulation, probably the most ancient mechanism from an evolutionary point of view, is experience-based, while the second mechanism can be characterized as a...

Empathyaltruism Hypothesis

Ing others as intentional agents is grounded in the relational nature of action and, ultimately, on neuropsychological mechanisms. Such an account of intersubjectivity is put in relation to empathy, invoking one of the classical tenets of phenomenology, and indicates an alternative approach to empathy that is not dependent exclusively on mentalistic or linguistic abilities or factors. See also BYSTANDER INTERVENTION EFFECT DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY EMPATHY-ALTRUISM HYPOTHESIS LIPPS' EMPATHY THEORY MACHIAVELLIAN THEORY MIND MENTAL STATES, THEORIES OF MIRROR NEURONS THEORY SELF-CONCEPT THEORY. REFERENCES

Logical Empiricism Doctrine

Attempts to determine, or predict, who will be a criminal, are not new. Various anthropological and psychological theories based on mental ability have provided explanations for criminal behavior cf., the American sociologist Robert K. Merton's (1910-2003) anomie theory of crime - the conjecture that people with culturally-approved goals of success, who cannot achieve them in a normal way, develop innovative and usually criminal ways of achieving them the bonding theory of criminality - the notion that career criminals who have separated themselves from conventional society no longer accept its legitimacy and, thus, establish their own independent norms and the victim precipitation hypothesis - postulates that a victim of a crime, especially in cases of incest or rape, is responsible partially for it, and is called victim-blaming . The Italian anthropologist criminologist Cesare Lombroso (1836-1909) - who wrote on the connection between genius and insanity -...

Mind Blindness Theory

Relationship between them, or what is called the mind-body problem, leading to mind-body theories. Plato (c. 428-347 B.C.) was a dualist who divided the human being in his dualist theory into material body and immaterial soul (cf., monist monism theory - postulates that the human organism consists of a single unified identity some empirical monistic reductionists equate the mind to the activity of the brain and the nervous system). For Plato, the body is a hindrance to the soul in the acquisition of knowledge and, as a rationalist, he abandoned the body and the senses for the activity of the soul capable of accounting for absolute being. Plato spoke of the soul as a unity that has three aspects reason (located in the head), spirit courage (located in the chest), and appetite (located in the abdomen). Basically, Plato favored rational deductive science over the empirical inductive approach. Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) attempted to solve the mind-body problem as presented in Platonic...

Interaction Process Analysis

Haviorism rejects traditional mental fictions ( mentalism ) that result from humans operating and reacting in a dualistic (mind-body) culture, as well as rejecting most of the other hypothetical entities so popular in mainstream psychology. Interbehavioral theory asserts that there is no scientific basis for imaginary constructs, such as executive or storage centers of the mind brain, and psychological events are considered to be part of nature and not apart from nature. In Kantor's approach, the behaving organism may be viewed as a stimulus object where it interacts with other behaving organisms so that the action of each is considered to be coordinate, reciprocal, and mutual. In interbehavioral theory, emphasis is placed on a field approach and rationale where the setting and conditions surrounding the interaction or interbehavior of the organism and other stimulus objects is paramount. Similar to the discipline of ecology - where analyses are made of the relationships of organisms...

Retrospective Liability and Criminalization 19801989

By 1981 however, the constituency of the environmental movement had changed. At first enlisting primarily upper-middle class, well-educated suburbanites, environ-mentalism had become a populism, including lower-middle-class Americans in the heartland who resented the effects of global markets on their communities. Social-science surveys showed overwhelming support among all economic and social groups for the strictest regulation, regardless of cost. Because of the strength of environmentalism among his own supporters, President Reagan found himself obliged to replace the head of the EPA and the secretary of the interior, and to accept a new barrage of environmental statutes that appealed to a populist not to a technocratic constituency.

Scientific And Research Issues

Dating back the writings of Sir Francis Galton in the late nineteenth century. The issue is often framed as a debate over nature versus nurture. After the rediscovery of the work of Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) in the twentieth century, the issue came to be couched in terms of genes versus environments and their respective influences on the organism, while more recently the talk has been of DNA and its role in relation to other causal factors. Themes revolving around genetics and environment are especially contentious when behavioral and mental traits (and disorders) are brought into the picture. This has been the case for views about the self and responsibility, as well as in society in general, where the specter of eugenics is quickly raised. According to the Nobel Laureate Thorsten Wiesel, Perhaps most disturbing to our sense of being free individuals, capable to a large degree of shaping our character and our minds, is the idea that our behavior, mental abilities, and mental health...

Principle Ii Responsible Caring Values Statement

In order to carry out these steps, psychologists recognize the need for competence and self-knowledge. They consider incompetent action to be unethical per se, as it is unlikely to be of benefit and likely to be harmful. They engage only in those activities in which they have competence or for which they are receiving supervision, and they perform their activities as competently as possible. They acquire, contribute to, and use the existing knowledge most relevant to the best interests of those concerned. They also engage in self-reflection regarding how their own values, attitudes, experiences, and social context (e.g., culture, ethnicity, colour, religion, sex, gender, sexual orientation, physical and mental abilities, age, and socio-economic status) influence their actions, interpretations, choices, and recommendations. This is done with the intent of increasing the probability that their activities will benefit and not harm the individuals, families, groups, and communities to...

Levels Of Organization And Materialism

Objects of this sort are the lowest level of organization that we are ordinarily aware of in our commonsense dealings with the world. However, cups and fingers can easily be recognized as made up from lower levels of organization, such as the cells of a finger. In fact, many modern materialists identify the material ground for mental phenomena as at the level of fingers, although they prefer a different organ the brain and the nervous system. Of course, the brain and nervous system are essentially involved in psychological events, in somewhat the same way that we could not talk about one cup being larger than another unless there were two cups to be compared. However, one can attribute special status to the level of organization of the nervous system only temporarily. Inconveniently for any notion that neurons are special, the scientific understanding that licenses our talk about neurons also includes the fact that neurons are themselves made up of...

The Privacy Of Mental Events Actions And Causes

Before unpacking this idea, I must note that our everyday experience includes two kinds of mental stuff, each of which seems private in a somewhat different way. One kind of stuff might be called mental objects and includes such things as emotions, motives, desires, attitudes, and beliefs. We know these mental objects by feeling them, an experience that is direct and apparently unmediated. The other kind of mental phenomenon that needs explanation consists of mental actions, such as thinking, perceiving, and remembering. These two aspects of mind involve somewhat different senses of privacy and require somewhat different analysis. They will thus be treated separately.

Arthur A Freeman and Bradley Rosenfield

An elegant assignment targeting hypersensitivity to evaluation and decreasing grandiosity is to have patients seek feedback directly from others. The therapist may also use this exercise to target more adaptive interpretation of events, evaluate the importance of the evaluation, and develop frustration tolerance (Beck et al., 2004 McMullin, 2000). Therapists can further increase the efficacy of the procedure and ameliorate mind reading by having patients predict the type of feedback they will receive (Beck et al., 1985, 2004). For patients who demonstrate a pattern of abuse of others' rights and feelings, the problem may be conceptualized as a lack of empathy and

Intelligence Theorieslaws Of

And refers to a person's complex mental abilities that include, among other things, the variables of amount of knowledge available at a given time speed with which new knowledge is acquired the ability to adapt to new situations and the ability to deal with new and old concepts, abstract symbols, and cognitive relationships. The process of developing general mental schemas to classify events in the environment is called abstract intelligence reasoning (cf., concretistic reasoning or solving specific problems with specific materials) and formal operations (cf, Piaget, 1963), and may be measured in various ways. Many of the theories of intelligence are tied to particular tests, methods, and assessments of this complex concept, and these constitute what might be called measured intelligence. Some researchers in this area refer, also, to the adaptive ability (e.g., grades in school, performance and success at work) of the person as an indication of general intelligence. The modern concept...

Behavioral Theory Of Timing

Between the initial stimulus and the final response in a learned behavior. In this way, the covert behaviors of memory, thinking, language, and problem solving could be cast into behavior theory terms where the notion of the central mediating response was a core concept. Radical behaviorist theory is closest of all the neobehaviorist variations to Watson's classical theory. This approach proposes that whatever cannot be observed and measured does not exist it also rejects the fuzzy and ill-defined concepts in psychology such as mind, free will, personality, self, and feelings, even though it allows an organism's private world to be studied scientifically (Skinner, 1938, 1953, 1963, 1974). The theoretical approach of the radical behaviorists is the only type of behaviorist theory that is exerting a serious influence on mainstream psychology today, while the other behaviorist variations have passed into history. It is possible that present-day cognitive psychology is a new form of...

Post Watson Era of the 1930s and 1940s Enter the Neobehaviorists

Ture of behavior presented by many versions of behaviorism and insisted that behavior is inherently purposive and cognitive, with purpose and cognition being part of the contextual behavioral whole as manifest in behavior, not as mentalistic entities apart from behavior. In this work Tolman foreshadowed the concept of what would be known as the intervening variable a concept that represents an attempt to legitimize talk and inferences about cognitions, purposes, and the like by anchoring such inferences in terms of observable antecedent and consequent events. Eventually Tolman would move his thinking in the direction that knowledge about the world is mediated by cognitive representations of that world, and that purposes and cognitions would have to be assigned a hypothetical rather than observed status. Tolman adumbrated what would become a major source of conceptual disagreement in behavior therapy, with some behavior therapists emphasizing the causal status of cognition, while...

Unbounded Rationality Versus The Bounded Reality Of Human Decision Making

Maximization of expected utility in this way is probably the best known realization of the prominent vision of unbounded rationality. Models of unbounded rationality have been criticized for having little or no regard for the constraints of time, knowledge, and computational capacities that real humans face. For instance, while you are deliberating about whether marrying is the right choice, considering each of the myriad conceivable consequences and assigning probabilities to each, any potential partner will probably have married someone else. To this criticism proponents of unbounded rationality generally concede that their models assume unrealistic mental abilities, but they nevertheless defend them by arguing that humans act as if they were unboundedly rational. In this interpretation, the models of unbounded rationality do not describe the process but merely the outcome of reasoning.

Cross Cultural Perspectives on Shamans

The foundations of shamanism are derived from (1) ASC induction activities that elicit the relaxation response and produce theta wave synchronization across levels of the brain (2) analogic and visual symbolic systems involving a presentational symbolism and other innate representational modules for self, others, mind, and nature and (3) socioemotional and psychodynamic ritual processes and their physiological, social, psychological, and cognitive effects. Shamanistic ASC involve a biological mode of consciousness with many adaptive physiological consequences directly related to healing (e.g., relaxation, psychological integration, opioid, and serotonin-mediated effects). Shamanism uses presentational symbolic systems (Hunt, 1995) and analogical thought processes produced through integration of innate representational systems of the brain, specialized adaptations for processing perceptions of social relations (self others), their intentionalities ( mind reading ), and animal knowledge...

Granular Theory See Life Theories Of

The theoretical relationship between the features of one's handwriting and his her personality or character has been studied extensively in modern times by the French abbot Jean Hippolyte Michon (1806-1881) and by the German philosopher psychologist Ludwig Klages (1872-1956). Based on analyses of the characteristics and variables in personal handwriting - such as modulations in size of letters, layout, connectedness, slant, regularity, speed, forms, shading, and angularity - graphologists (those who analyze the physical features and patterns of handwriting and who formulate graphology theory) have speculated on persons' traits, qualities, and attributes. Some graphologists use the analytic approach, in which relatively isolated aspects of the handwriting (e.g., curvature, angularity, width, slant of individual letters) are presumed indicators of specific personality traits of the writer. Other graphologists assert that personality characteristics are reflected...

Parsimony Lawprinciple Of

Lloyd Morgan's Morgan's canon Occam's razor Occam's principle economy, principle of. The law of parsimony states that if two scientific propositions, or two theories, are equally tenable, the simpler one is to be preferred. Another name for this law is called Lloyd Morgan's canon in honor of the English zoologist physiologist Conway Lloyd Morgan (1852-1936). Morgan articulated the principle in 1894 (cf., the German psychologist Wilhelm Wundt who anticipated Morgan's principle in the former's lectures in 1863) and cautioned against the explanatory excesses of the emerging field of comparative psychology by stating that in interpreting an animal's behavior, it is always preferable to adopt the psychologically simplest interpretation (cf., the parsimony principle in biology evolution, which is the proposition that closely related organisms, having diverged relatively recently in evolutionary history, have fewer differences in their DNA than more distantly related organisms). Thus,...

Neuronneuralnerve Theory

A neurological event at a synapse in which neurotransmitters generate a slow, pro-longed effect via metabolic, rather than ionic, changes). In 1895, the neurologist psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud set out his assumptions about how the nervous system works (cf., Jackson's law - named after the English neurologist John Huglings Jackson (1835-1911) and formulated in 1898 - states that when mental abilities are lost because of a neurological disorder, the abilities that appeared last in the course of evolution are lost first because it is the higher nervous centers (that is, those appearing last phylogenetically) that are first affected, and the lower older centers are the last affected also, Jackson's mixed cerebral dominance theory states that speech disorders and some other maladjustments may be due to the fact that one cerebral hemisphere does not lead consistently the other hemisphere in controlling bodily movement). Freud hypothesized that neural elements are separated from one another...

Cognitive Challenging

Common types of irrational thoughts are mind reading, when someone infers what another person is thinking, often assuming something negative while ignoring other possibilities, and emotional reasoning, when people make inferences about something based on their feelings, such as Because I am scared driving over this bridge, the bridge must be dangerous. In all of these cases, the key to change is in realizing that thoughts and feelings are not facts, and need not be acted on as if they were. By identifying the specific thoughts, and evaluating their accuracy and utility, people can begin to challenge irrational or unhelpful thoughts, leading to less anxiety.

Nursing Homes and Other Chronic Care Facilities

In a retrospective analysis of physical restraint deaths occurring mostly in nursing homes, victims were found suspended from chairs or beds (92). Detailed analysis of these deaths showed that all were demented, most had impulsive or involuntary movements, and many had recently tried to escape a restraint or been found in an abnormal position while restrained (92). A vest restraint on a seated patient may be improperly positioned initially or subsequently. A bottom strap may be absent. As a result, sliding under the vest occurs with consequent pressure on the neck, leading to asphyxia (Fig. 5 refs. 92,94-96). These patients, because of diminished physical and mental abilities, are unable to extricate themselves (94). A victim's small size is also a contributory factor (92). A wheelchair can flip, entrapping an individual in a vest restraint (see Subheading 3.7. and ref. 97).

The Secrets in My Genes Genetic Discrimination and Privacy

When genetics is playing a part in controlling identity, law is not deemed necessary to regulate its effects. On the other hand, genetics in its disruptive aspect invites a flurry of legal regulation. As feminist and postmodern scholars have revealed, defining a body as abject and then regulating it is a form of violence to the Other. Despite this, when conventional understandings of self are disrupted, law is called upon to protect those whose power is threatened rather than support those whose status might be enhanced by the change. Genetic technologies demonstrate, in a most uncomfortable way for those of us who are able-bodied, that our bodies are flawed. Disease, disability, and even death are not miraculously absent from some bodies, inhabiting only the disabled body. Disease, disability, and death exist as possibilities within all bodies. We have enjoyed our ignorance of our genes, which guaranteed that as long as no symptom was manifest we retained full physical and mental...

Gender over the Life Cycle

Since different Luyia communities conceive of the life cycle in differing patterns, one group, Abasamia, are presented as an example. Samia conceptions of life stages vary, with a range of opinions about stages, ages, indicators, and transitions. For example, many Samia think that a fetus is a thing (esindu), not yet a person or human being (omundu), and that life begins at birth others say that life begins at conception. For the first day of life, the infant is just born (omwana omwibulwe) for a few weeks it is newborn (omwana ori olwesi), physically dependent, and morally pure thereafter it is a small child (omudoto). Omudoto develops physical skills, mental ability, and moral capacity, and is considered to know reason (okhumanya amakesi), to be able to think and know right from wrong, somewhere between ages 3 and 8. Such a child passes from childhood (obuyere) to youth (oburaga), and then to puberty, a state of being a ripe person (omwangafu), a person who is physically mature and...

Pharmaceutical Interventions into the Aging Process

The genetic manipulations used in the laboratory are not likely to be well received as therapeutic tools. Once the longevity extension mechanisms described above were identified, many scientists independently tried to develop pharmaceutical interventions by feeding various drugs suspected of regulating those two processes to their laboratory animals. Five of those experiments have shown signs of success. Although those independent experiments used different intervention strategies and administered different molecules to the laboratory animals, they all recorded significant increases in the animals' health span (comparable to those in Figure 1) and or a significant extension of the animals' functional and mental abilities.

History Changes in Cognitive and Functional Status

Nitive and functional status will be very different for a person who was highly educated and held positions of great responsibility compared to a person who at baseline had borderline intellectual capacities, a grade-school education, and worked menial jobs. One inquires about changes in mental abilities that can present as forgetfulness, episodes of getting lost, word-finding difficulties, paraphasic errors, and a tendency for the patient to repeat herself. One asks about changes in personality, mood, and behavior, including evidence of sadness, withdrawal, apathy, inappropriateness, impulsivity, irritability, suspi-ciousness, and altered appetitive behaviors. Is there evidence to suggest hallucinations, illusions, misperceptions, or delusions (e.g., that others are stealing things from the patient or that one's spouse is unfaithful)

Attachment Principle Of

ATTENTION, LAWS PRINCIPLES AND THEORIES OF. The term attention is defined differently depending on the context in which it is used. In a functional sense, for instance, attention refers to the process of focusing on certain portions of an experience so that the parts become relatively more distinctive (cf., readiness potential - a large negative difference in voltage across the cerebral cortex, hypothesized to be indicative of attention, and developing about eight-tenths of a second before an individual makes a preplanned bodily movement). In a behavioral context (cf., behaviorist school context, where attention was rejected as a more traditional mentalistic concept), attention is defined more precisely as an adjustment of the sensory apparatus that facilitates optimal excitation by a specific stimulus (or a complex of stimuli) and inhibits the action of all other details. Attention may be conscious, in that some stimulus elements are actively selected out of the total input, even...

Mental Status Examination

An alteration of mental status requires a deficit in alertness or awareness or both. Alertness requires the normal functioning of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), which passes through the midline of the brainstem up through the thalamus, resulting in arousal of the cerebral hemispheres. Awareness, tested as orientation, requires alertness plus the normal functioning of the cerebral hemispheres. The obtunded patient responds to voices, but there is an abnormality in alertness. Because the ARAS passes through the pontine tegmentum in proximity to the medial longitudinal fasciculus, one needs to examine for focal brainstem deficits, especially pupillary or gaze abnormalities, in the obtunded patient. The drowsy patient may have a decreased level of alertness or awareness, so that one needs to examine for cortical and brainstem deficits. The alert patient may have deficits in awareness but no brainstem lesions that affect the ascending reticular activating system....

Methodological and Metaphysical Behaviorism

Metaphysical behaviorism of the sort espoused by John B. Watson (1878-1958) and his followers makes a much stronger claim. It denies the existence of mind and consciousness and proposes that all mentalistic concepts be properly defined (or redefined) in terms of observable behavior. Watson maintained that behavior can be explained entirely in terms of stimulus and response, without the intervention of mental or conscious events and activities. For Watson, all behavior is environmentally derived and cannot be explained by appeals to heredity, instincts, the unconscious, human nature, or internal predispositions.

Meal Timing

Breakfast The potential effects of breakfast on performance and well-being continue to attract much interest, not least from industry, especially concerning the performance of schoolchildren. Pollitt and colleagues have argued that children are likely to be more susceptible than adults to the effects of fasting, owing to their greater brain metabolic demands relative to their glycogenic and gluconeogenic capacity. The numerous studies in this area have produced inconsistent results, which is partly attributable to variation in the populations studied, their nutritional status, and the designs used. There is a consensus that breakfast is more likely than not to benefit schoolchildren's performance, particularly if the children are already nutritionally vulnerable and have mental abilities with room for improvement.

Definition of Terms

G) Unjust discrimination or unjustly discriminatory means activities that are prejudicial or promote prejudice to persons because of their culture, nationality, ethnicity, colour, race, religion, sex, gender, marital status, sexual orientation, physical or mental abilities, age, socioeconomic status, or any other preference or personal characteristic, condition, or status.

Values Statement

In these contacts, psychologists accept as fundamental the principle of respect for the dignity of persons that is, the belief that each person should be treated primarily as a person or an end in him herself, not as an object or a means to an end. In so doing, psychologists acknowledge that all persons have a right to have their innate worth as human beings appreciated and that this worth is not dependent upon their culture, nationality, ethnicity, colour, race, religion, sex, gender, marital status, sexual orientation, physical or mental abilities, age, socio-economic status, or any other preference or personal characteristic, condition, or status.

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