Five Steps to Mindfulness

Seven Minute Mindfulness

Seven Minute Mindfulness is an audio targeted at using the most natural way to maintain a good focus and the mindfulness people need for their daily activities. It combines the various religious methods to reach a balance in ensuring the users reach the highest point of mindfulness they can ever attain. To help them reach this height, the program had been prepared to take only seven minutes of your time. Pending the time of its usage, the users will not have to spend a lot of time dealing with it. The Seven Minute Mindfulness was designed to be used on any device. Getting started is simple and will take just a few minutes after ordering. It comes with various bonuses like The Seven Minute Mindfulness Guidebook (A digital manual that comes along with the audio version); Your Little Book Of Mindfulness Exercises (A digital guide to some exercises that can be practised in the house)The product is in a digital format of Audio messages and has been created at a very affordable price. In case it does not meet their demands or desires, the users have the right to ask for a refund of their money within three months. The implication is that they are given the chance to try it at home and if they suddenly become sceptical or grow cold feet, they will get a 100% refund. Continue reading...

Seven Minute Mindfulness Summary


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Contents: Audio Sessions, Manuals
Author: Greg Thurston
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My Seven Minute Mindfulness Review

Highly Recommended

The writer has done a thorough research even about the obscure and minor details related to the subject area. And also facts weren’t just dumped, but presented in an interesting manner.

All the testing and user reviews show that Seven Minute Mindfulness is definitely legit and highly recommended.

Critical Praise for the Current and Previous Editions

Pope and Vasquez have done a masterful job in their third edition in helping practitioners think through how to respond to complex ethical dilemmas and assume personal responsibility for their actions. This book also provides an excellent articulation of best practices in negotiating and clarifying complex ethical dilemmas. The authors explore the complexities of ethical decision making in creative ways that encourage mindful awareness and continual inquiry. They use an active approach with scenarios followed by a set of questions to explore each topic. This is an essential book for every clinician from trainees to seasoned practitioners. It will have a powerful impact on the field for many years to come by providing practitioners a solid foundation and road map upon which to provide competent and ethical treatment.

Physiology of breathlessness

'corollary discharge', a term that describes the hypothesis that a sensory 'copy' of the motor output is sent from the motor cortex to the sensory cortex and imparts a conscious awareness of respiratory effort. The second concept, called 'efferent-reafferent dissociation', describes an hypothesis in which it is postulated that the sensory cortex acts as if it were comparing information received about efferent signals from the motor cortex to ventilatory muscles (via the corollary discharge) with information (afferent signals) arising from receptors stimulated by the mechanical response of the lungs and chest wall to the motor commands. The intensity of breathlessness appears to correlate with the match or mismatch of these signals. The greater the dissociation between the efferent and afferent signals, the greater is the intensity of the breathing discomfort. Finally, the third element in the model postulates that some receptors (mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors) are responsible...

Increased work of breathing the corollary discharge

The concept of a 'corollary discharge' is the most widely accepted hypothesis used to explain the origin of the sense of effort. As the motor cortex sends efferent commands to the ventilatory muscles, a neurological 'copy' of these commands is simultaneously sent to the sensory cortex.7 This exchange between the motor and sensory cortex is called a corollary discharge and is thought to be the mechanism by which conscious awareness of the effort of breathing occurs. Although increased work of breathing is not the sole physiological explanation for dyspnea, increased effort is a common cause of breathing discomfort, since muscle weakness and increased mechanical loads, such as airway obstruction and stiff lungs, are characteristic of many cardiopul-monary conditions.

Peter G Grossenbacher

What is the nature of human consciousness This question can be considered from either of two perspectives (1) the subjective point of view how things seem to you personally, from your first person perspective, and how the objective view how things appear to a consensus of people.1 Each perspective provides unique methods for understanding consciousness. Because neither on its own allows as complete an account of consciousness as they do in combination, this book attempts to bring subjective and objective perspectives together by explaining some of the neural mechanisms which underlie subjective aspects of conscious experience. You, the reader, will be asked to breath life into the subjective perspective embedded in this text. Authentic personal phenomenology, the observation of your own conscious experience, is the only way to ensure that the objective findings of cognitive neuroscience do in fact pertain to conscious experience. Immediate phenomenal quality, what it is like right now...

Purposes of Body Perception and Knowledge

Intuitively, one may discern three significant purposes of knowledge about one's body. First, it is needed for motor control. Second, it can give rise to conscious awareness and evaluation of the integrity and configuration of one's own body. Third, it can serve social communication and learning. The ability to compare the configuration of one's own body with those of other persons and to adapt one's movements to those shown by other persons is important for skill learning and social communication.

Consciousness Phenomenon

Consciousness is the ability to demonstrate awareness and to process sensations, thoughts, images, ideas, feelings, and perceptions it is also the capacity of having experiences, the central affect of neural reception, the subjective aspect of brain activity, the relation of self to environment, and the totality of an individual's experiences at any given moment. Whereas E. B. Titchener (1867-1927), the major American proponent of the school of Structuralism, declared that psychology is the science of consciousness, J. B. Watson (1878-1958), the founder of the psychological school of Behaviorism (cf., Meyers' psychological theories), insisted on relegating the phenomenon of consciousness to the sphere of mythology or to the rubbish heap of science Roback (1964) cf., Sutherland (1996) who suggests that nothing worth reading has been written on the issue or phenomenon of consciousness . The consistent and pervasive fascination with the notion of consciousness within, as well as...

Memory for Information Perceived Without Awareness

Complete the stem to make any word other than one previously presented. Success in following the instructions indicates that a word was perceived with awareness failure indicates that a word was perceived without awareness. Memory for information perceived without awareness lasted for at least 32 minutes, and was strong following all retention intervals. These findings are consistent with previous studies suggesting that memory for information perceived without awareness can last for hours or days.

Studies of memory for information perceived without awareness

Mack and Rock (1998) conducted a series of experiments in which a single word was presented at fixation on critical trials. On average, 62.5 of the participants failed to notice the word. Mack and Rock interpreted this finding as indicating an absence of any conscious awareness of the words. They then sought to determine whether there was implicit knowledge of the words despite the participants' failures to notice the words. To test for implicit knowledge, Mack and Rock used the stem-completion task. On critical trials, once a participant indicated which arm of the cross was longer and stated whether they noticed anything in the center of the display, Mack and Rock presented the three-letter stem of the word presented on that trial. For example, if the word flake had been presented, stem-completion task coupled with instructions asking participants to complete the stems with the first word that came to mind. With exclusion instructions, participants are asked to complete the stems...

The Theology Judeo Christian Teachings

Inner Peace Christianity, like many other religions, places a high value on a sense of inner tranquility and peace. The Christian believes there is no better way to gain that inner peace than by leading a life highlighted by two factors love for God and others expressed by many positive behaviors and a sense of self-control that has helped eliminate undesired and negative behaviors.

Future Directions For Practice And Research

Adults combines the change-based strategies (e.g., modification of distorted thoughts, problem-solving, behavioral activation) emphasized in traditional CBT with more acceptance-based strategies (e.g., mindfulness, validation). In our experience, a more acceptance-based approach is especially useful for maximizing patient comfort early in the process of therapy (i.e., during initial assessment and psy-choeducation). Other approaches that are gaining scientific support also utilize mindfulness exercises and emphasize the process of thinking rather than the content of thoughts (see Bizzini, 1998 Hollon et al., 2002).

Case Analysis Summary

Three additional professional integrity issues not discussed in the text or case analysis should be mentioned. The first concerns ethics regarding colleagues such as co-workers, supervisors, and supervisees. In these relationships therapists should always be expected to keep the best interest of the client in mind, avoid boundary infringements, avoid personal conflicts of interest, and meticulously respect confidentiality. Such considerations are especially relevant to team relationships. This means keeping team roles clear, being mindful that a healthy milieu is the best treatment vehicle, being aware of transference, not acting out in colleague relationships in a way detrimental to clients, not exploiting supervisees, not dumping cases, keeping educational objectives in mind, keeping track of what may come up about being responsible for the training of students, and keeping track of the potentially unhealthy side of mentoring.

Glutamate Hypothesis

Other versions of this statement are, simply, I am lying or This statement is false. This latter version of Epimenides paradox violates the usually assumed dichotomy of statements into categories of true and false, because if you tentatively think the statement is true, then it immediately backfires on you and makes you think it is false. On the other hand, once you have decided the statement is false, a similar backfiring returns you to the idea that it must be true. Godel's theorem had a significant effect on logicians, mathematicians, and philosophers interested in the foundations of mathematics because it showed that no fixed system - no matter how complicated - could represent the complexity of the whole numbers (0, 1, 2, 3, etc.). Godel's theorem proof, also, has had a bearing on psychology, especially in the area of artificial intelligence (AI). For instance, computers must be programmed for AI, but there is only a finite number of possible...

Spirit as Biopsychosocial Dynamics of Self and Other

The shamanic spirit world is a conceptual framework representing aspects of self ritual symbolic manipulation of these spirit constructs can affect attachments and emotions by operating on structures functioning outside of conscious awareness. Spirits are the most fundamental cause of shamanistic illness, and are also fundamental structures of self and others, representing generic aspects of human thought. Ritual interactions with spirits elicit these primordial psychocognitive processes and forms of representation and communication that manage the relationships of self-concept, social others, and emotional well-being.

Creating Our Autobiography

The interpreter's talents can be viewed on a larger canvas. I began this article by observing our deep belief that we can attain not only a neuroscience of consciousness but also a neuroscience of human consciousness. It is as if something wonderfully new and complex happens as the brain enlarges to its full human form. Whatever happens (and I think it is the emergence of the interpreter module), it triggers our capacity for self-reflection and all that goes with it. How do we account for this Or a monkey does not enjoy a spectacular swing Again, it has to be true. Each species is aware of its special capacities. So what is human consciousness It is awareness of the very same kind, except that we can be aware of so much more, so many wonderful things. A circuit, perhaps a single system or one duplicated again and again, is associated with each brain capacity. The more systems a brain possesses, the greater our awareness of capacities.

Do humans store symbolic information

On chemical reactions in individual visual cells. It would not be appropriate to assume that the timing of the output impulses is the same in all of the visual cells. In other words, it is very likely that at a given moment when you observe the straight line of Figure 4, the impulse data being input into your brain is almost random information. This state of affairs has continued from your birth to the present moment. It means, if we think naturally, we can conclude that human beings never receive symbolic information.

Developmental Frames Of Reference

Conceptualizations about unconscious conflicts are central to any psychodynamic approach to intervention. Here, unconscious refers to the dynamic interaction of thoughts, feelings, memories, bodily experiences, and thought processes that operate outside of an individual's conscious awareness. These unconscious configurations of experience exert influence on patterns of

Therapeutic Tasks

For psychodynamic psychotherapists, children's play in the context of the clinical setting provides an important window into the inner life. The play themes, materials chosen, and the child's affects and verbalizations are viewed by the clinician as revealing complex aspects of the child's internal life of which he or she may be unaware and unable to verbalize directly. In the course of treatment and in the context of a developing therapeutic relationship, the clinician makes observations about the unfolding narratives that emerge in the play activities and what they reveal about children's conflicts, defenses, and consequent behaviors and modes of relating. The clinician does not comment on everything that is observed. The therapist chooses the material to be interpreted based on his clinical judgment about what is uppermost or closest to consciousness in the child's mind at that particular point in time. The clinician's goal in interpreting this material is to increase the child's...

Suggestions For The Future

It is important that cognitive hypnotherapy be applied to a greater range of psychological problems, especially personality disorders. It has much in common with Mindfulness Meditation (Segal, Williams, & Teasdale, 2002) as well as other forms of meditation, even prayer (Dowd, in press). Many of these interventions are ancient and the similarities and differences among them should be more fully explored and tested. The research outcomc literature on these imagery meditation-based interventions is sparse indeed and research should be conducted not only to test their efficacy but their differential efficacy relative to other forms of cognitive-behavior therapy and therapeutic approaches.

Lostletter Techniqueeffect

This technique was introduced by the American social psychologist Stanley Milgram (1933-1984) and his colleagues as an unobtrusive measure i.e., an indirect method for collecting data without the conscious awareness or cooperation of the research participants, and includes a number of techniques popularized by the American psychologist Eugene J. Webb (1933- ) and several coauthors in the 1960s, even though the original notion of the technique is traceable to the work of the English natural scientist Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911) in the 1870s of attitudes whereby stamped, addressed envelopes (cf., postcards) are scattered in various public places (as if left by accident). The proportion of the envelopes that are posted returned to the envelope addresses by individuals of the public are taken as providing a rough index of attitudes in the community. For instance, if half of the envelopes are addressed to a prostem cell research organization and half to an anti-stem cell research...

Selfperception Conscious And Unconscious

In chapter 1 I asserted strongly that self-perception processes, and ordinarily the cues they work on, were not available to conscious awareness and self-report. Virtually everyone who has taken a self-perception-like position, from James onward, has at least implied that the processes were not conscious (Bem, 1972 James, 1884 Laird, 1974, 1984 Laird & Bresler, 1992). The reason is, of course, that no one ever reports experiencing self-perception processes occurring in their everyday experience.

Oregon State University

In recent years, approaches within the cognitive and neurosciences have come a long way toward understanding the perceptual and cognitive processes contributing to conscious awareness. However, similar progress has not been made concerning the contributions of emotional and motivational processes. This is of course not surprising, because emotion is among the most elusive and problematic aspects of consciousness. Nevertheless, emotion is in many ways fundamental, providing the basis for the varied states of consciousness that we experience.

Competing Response Practice

The therapist began with awareness training to teach Keith to become aware of each occurrence of the tic. Keith described the movements involved in the tic and demonstrated the tic for the therapist as part of the response description procedure. Keith was not able to identify any antecedents to his tics. As part of the response detection procedure, he then observed himself on videotape and pointed out each occurrence of the tic that he saw on the tape. After identifying occurrences of his tic on tape, Keith practiced identifying each instance of the tic that occurred in the session as he talked with the therapist. The therapist praised him for correctly identifying the occurrence of the tic and pointed out any time a tic occurred that Keith failed to recognize.

The Focus The Bible

Although there are many others, one last cognitive therapy to examine here is semantic desensitization, the purposeful conditioning of pleasant thoughts or images to something that is not so pleasant. Christians make use of this technique to help keep the inner peace they desire, despite what is going on in their lives.

Description Of Treatment

The family of origin or within other significant emotional relationships. These approaches vary in the extent to which they emphasize the unconscious nature of these relational patterns, the developmental period during which these maladaptive patterns are acquired, and the extent to which interpersonal anxieties derive from frustration of innate drives. However, a shared focus of insight-oriented strategies are previous relationship injuries resulting in sustained interpersonal vulnerabilities and related defensive strategies interfering with emotional intimacy, many of which operate beyond partners' conscious awareness. Consequently, insight-oriented approaches to couples therapy emphasize that partners' maladaptive relationship patterns are likely to continue until they are understood in a developmental context. This exploration and new understanding serve to reduce the couple's attendant anxiety in current relationships and permit them to develop alternative, healthier relationship...

Cognitive Feelings of Knowing Familiarity and Tip of the Tongue

Perhaps the answers to all these questions were clear, and even before the answers came to mind you were sure that you knew them perfectly. Instead, perhaps you knew immediately that you did not know the answers to some of these questions, and no amount of thought would yield an answer. But perhaps for a moment or two at least you could not answer one or more of them, but you were sure that with a little more struggle you could. As we say when this kind of thing happens to us in everyday life, the answer is on the tip of my tongue. Feelings like these are the focus of this chapter. They are feelings rather than judgments, in the sense that they come to us immediately, without conscious awareness of any supporting evidence. We just know that we know something, or we do not. Or, we know something but cannot think of it now. And we also do not know how we know that we know these things. These feelings are different from those discussed in previous chapters in that they are about our...

Subdomains of Prospective Memory

Although all of these situations involve making a plan and performing the plan sometime in the future, the tasks differ in important ways. For some tasks, a plan is maintained in consciousness throughout the retention interval (e.g., scanning for airplanes) whereas for other tasks, the plan leaves consciousness. The critical question is whether the ProM cue brings the plan back to consciousness (Kvavilashvili, 1998 Mantyla, 1996 Graf & Uttl, 2001). We (Graf & Uttl, 2001) have argued that this difference in conscious experiences associated with different prospective memory tasks is analogous to the experiences that characterize primary and secondary memory (James, 1890). By analogy to William James (1890), we have proposed that prospective memory proper requires that we are aware of a plan, of which meanwhile we have not been thinking, with the additional consciousness that we had made the plan earlier (Graf & Uttl, 2001, p. 444). This definition distinguishes ProM Proper from...

National Institute of Mental Health

Percepts, the phenomenal contents of perception, are available during any waking state, presumably in every human being and in other species too. Perception entails becoming conscious of physical events, enabling you to sense bodily events such as breathing or limb movement, as well as objects and events in the environment surrounding your body. Some kinds of perceptual information predominate over other kinds in perceptual experience. That is, some sorts of sensory information appear more salient in the content of consciousness than do other sorts. This phenomenal preponderance is subjectively observable When you perceive something, what aspects tend to most fully occupy your conscious awareness 1 I can only guess at your experience, and your experience depends on the circumstances of your current situation Did an object's location in space serve as background information, with other aspects such as color and shape more directly occupying your conscious awareness For many people,...

Anatomical segregation of sense modalities in primate cortex

If the content of conscious experience is influenced by the anatomical extent of modality-specific brain systems, then visual percepts should occur more frequently than smells in the content of human consciousness. Is this the case for you Since the content of consciousness is largely supplied by cortical representations, the organization of sensory information in cortex may influence the psychological structure of perceptual awareness. Consider the psychological ramifications of the increase in cortical segregation among sense modalities over the course of human evolution. Certainly, under most conditions we encounter today, sensory information is readily tagged as heard, seen, touched, smelled, or tasted. As a greater proportion of cortical circuits have become increasingly devoted to a single sense modality, the route by which sensory information enters the nervous system may now be more readily identified in conscious awareness than in our evolutionary past. Is this true for you...

Cosmology and Eugenics

As to the second argument, that humans cannot handle their power over the genome, neither Hinduism nor Buddhism can be held to have a clear position on this. Evil is the result, respectively, of delusion, moha, or ignorance, avidya. Ethical ignorance is simply an aspect of more general spiritual ignorance, which clouds perception of the true nature of existence. However, Buddhism and Hinduism conceive of ethical ignorance somewhat differently. In Hinduism, it is necessary to be aware of the complex laws, or dharma, regulating human behavior. In Buddhism, ignorance is lack of awareness of the law of cause and effect, for example, of knowing how one's actions will affect oneself and others (Taniguchi, 1994). Mindfulness shows that an action harmful to another will cause suffering just as it would if done to oneself. A unique moral insight of Buddhism is that ethical behavior requires factual knowledge (Redmond, 1989) for example, what effects behavior will have on others as well as...

Future Directions

As noted previously, the RP model developed by Marlatt and Gordon is now being applied to a variety of psychological and behavioral disorders. In addition, there is promising research in the use of mindfulness-based enhancements based on Buddhist meditation techniques to enhance patients' ability to remain focused on negative thoughts and emotions triggered by high-risk situations and engage previously planned coping strategies (Breslin, Zack, & McMain, 2002). Researchers have already demonstrated the efficacy of adding this component to RP in the prevention of recurrence of major depressive episodes (Segal, Williams, & Teasdale, 2002).

Portion of Anterior Cingulate Cortex

The cingulate gyrus is a large fold of cortex located just above the corpus callosum (the largest fiber bundle which connects left and right cortical hemispheres). Visible at the base of each hemisphere's inner surface, and elongated in both anterior and posterior directions, the cingulate occupies a very central locus in the web of communicating connections which link brain areas together. Cingulate cortex connects with frontal and parietal association areas as shown by the arrows (the connections are in fact bidirectional). Note the impressive pattern of interdigitation in which alternating bands of cingulate tissue communicate with frontal and parietal lobes (Goldman-Rakic, 1988). This part of the brain plays a critical role in conscious awareness (see text). Given its connections with a large number of cortical areas, anterior cingulate is well positioned for providing content-general circuits which mediate conscious awareness. Consistent with this possible role are...

Brown Shrinkage Effect

This philosophical neurological theory of time awareness by the American neurologist physician Jason W. Brown proposes that mind transforms the physical space-time continuity into moments (the microstructure of the present moment) called the absolute Now and mixes these moments into an apparent continuity via an overlap of unfolding capsules in which the flow of psychological time is an illusion based on the rapid replacement of the capsules. Brown suggests, also, that each mind computes measures of duration from the decay of the surface present in relation to a core of past events. Brown's speculations about time stem from microgenetic theory which examines how behavior unfolds simultaneously in various dimensions and scales of time and space included in this philosophical approach are analyses of evolutionary brain processes that run from the oldest and deepest layers of the central nervous system in a general upward and outward direction. According...

If Feelings Dont Cause Behavior What Does

As a nice corollary of the control systems view, we can now provide an account of why we can act without the causal impetus of our feelings, why we smile before we are happy, and our hearts pound before we are afraid. Those things happen because they are parts of ongoing control systems that operate routinely without our conscious awareness. Human beings, and doubtless all organisms, seem to be built to perform complex actions through the action of these systems (Carver & Scheier, 1998).

Uncertainty Principle

The German physiologist psychologist Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand Helm-holtz (1821-1894) developed the doctrine of unconscious inference (in German, unbewusster Schluss), which refers to a judgment one makes on the basis of a limited amount of data or evidence and is made without conscious awareness (cf., Sigmund Freud's depth psychology theory of unconscious memory and unconsciousness makes reference to the memory of prior events, emotions, and feelings that may, or may not, be available for conscious retrieval psychodynamic depth theory indicates that unconscious memories are materials that have been denied or repressed due to psychic-energy conflicts and mechanisms on the other hand, information theory suggests that failure to access stored information may be accounted for in terms of information retrieval failure and due to lexical features or difficulties of the information itself the term unconscious cognitive process refers to the workings of the...

Buddhism and Human Reproduction

In contrast to the religious law ofJudaism, Christianity, and Islam, the Buddhist precepts are very general, expressing morality in spirit rather than letter. Nothing in the five lay precepts can be construed to oppose genetic manipulation, provided that it is not harmful. Buddhism does not try to regulate lay behavior by detailed codes of laws, but rather by teaching sati, mindfulness and ahimsa, harmlessness. The ultimate value in Buddhism is not living in accordance with a code of religious laws but being aware of the effects of one's actions so as to minimize harm. In general, a Buddhist would be concerned that genetic knowledge not be used in a way that causes suffering, but would not be opposed in principle to the acquisition or application of such knowledge. Buddhism places its highest value on knowledge, which it sees as the sole vehicle for enlightenment and release from suffering. Ignorance, not sin or disobedience, is the case of a human's unhappy state. Hence, Buddhism may...

Access mediation and consciousness A new model

In terms of neuroanatomy, the access mediation which sustains conscious experience is probably controlled, at least in part, by neurons located in anterior cingulate cortex. As presented above, evidence regarding anterior cingulate's connections with a host of other brain areas supports a possible role for this brain structure in inter-network communication, and physiological data indicate its metabolic involvement in conscious awareness. Moreover, a role for anterior cingulate in mediating conscious access is consistent with the reliable finding that executive cognitive control depends on this part of the brain (LaBerge, 1990 Pardo et al., 1990 Vogt, Finch & Olson, 1992). Although it is easy, from a psychological perspective, to consider conscious awareness and executive control to be possibly distinct components of mind, neurologically they may be inseparable. Suppose that AMM is correct in that the contents of conscious awareness really do arise by virtue of the contentgeneral...

Early Greek And Later Philosophical Theories Of Time

The different treatment of space and time in Plato's various cosmological references space exists in its own right as a given basis for the visible order of things, whereas time is merely an aspect of that order based on an ideal timeless archetype and involves static geometrical shapes (eternity) of which time is the moving image and is governed by a regular numerical sequence occasioned by the motions of the heavenly bodies. Thus, Plato's intimate pairing of time with the universe led him to consider time as being produced, essentially, by celestial sphere revolutions (cf., Aristotle who rejected the idea that time is identified with any particular form of motion). It may be noted that time per se is nowhere contemplated psychologically by Plato time is not one of Plato's five categories (Being, Rest, Motion, Sameness, and Difference). Among the Scholastic philosophers of the Middle Ages, St. Albertus Magnus (c.1193-1280 A.D.) held that natural philosophy, rather than metaphysics,...

Marsha M Linehan and Eunice Y Chen

Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is a multimodal cognitive-behavioral treatment originally developed to treat chronically suicidal individuals meeting borderline personality disorder (BPD) criteria. DBT is informed by Eastern mindfulness practices and behavior therapy, and is conducted within the frame of a dialectical epistemology. The underlying dialectic involves acceptance of clients in their current distress, yet aiding clients with skills to alter their dysfunctional behavioral patterns. The behavior change strategies it employs include methodical and iterative behavioral analyses of dysfunctional chains of behavior, the use of commitment strategies to engage clients in treatment, didactic strategies, exposure-based strategies to block avoidance and repetitive behaviors and reduce maladaptive emotions, contingency management to reduce, suppress, or prevent disordered responses and to strengthen skillful responses and cognitive modification strategies. Acceptance procedures...

Hobbes Psychological Theory

Materialistic monism (i.e., there is only one type of ultimate reality cf., dualism which asserts that there are two separate states of reality or two sets of basic principles in the universe), Hobbes found no evidence for the existence of a soul and, thereby, had no need to explain the way in which body and soul (mind) interacted. Like the later behaviorists, Hobbes simply ignored the question of conscious awareness as a matter of concern to psychologists. Thus, Hobbes' psychology portrayed the individual as a machine operating in a mechanized world where sensations arise from motion and result in ideas, according to the laws of association. However, a major inconsistency in Hobbes' position lies in explaining consciousness his sequence of thought implies an awareness of a cognitive content, but he is unclear on the manner of movement from physically-based sensations to nonphysical thought. See also ASSOCIATION, LAWS PRINCIPLES OF BEHAV-IORIST THEORY EMPIRICAL EMPIRICISM, DOCTRINE OF...

Application Of The Model Of The Neural Circuitry Of Anxiety And Fear To Anxiety Disorders

The startle reflex has been the subject of the few fear conditioning studies that have been performed in humans. Startle is a useful method for examining fear responding in experimental studies involving both animals and humans that is mediated by the amygdala and connected structures. Patients with combat-related PTSD were found to have elevated baseline startle compared to controls in some studies but not others. In the patient group, there were asymmetry of baseline startle response and increased heart rate responses during measurement of startle. From other studies it is clear that unconscious emotional processes are involved in fear conditioning (e.g., patients with anxiety disorders have demonstrated greater resistance to extinction of conditioned responses to angry facial expressions, but not to neutral facial expressions, compared to controls). In the neural circuitry, damage to the amygdala does not prevent patients from learning the relationship between the CS and the...

Retroactive and Proactive Interference

Examples Proactive Interference

Declarative memory (also called explicit memory) refers to the acquisition of facts, experiences, and information about events. It is memory that is directly accessible to conscious awareness and thus can be declared. In contrast, nondeclarative memory (also called implicit memory) refers to various forms of memory that are not directly accessible to consciousness. These include skill and habit learning, classical conditioning, priming, and other situations in which memory is expressed through performance or skill rather than through conscious recollection. c. Priming Priming is the phenomenon by which prior exposure to information influences performance on later tasks even without conscious awareness. Priming effects are demonstrated by presenting a stimulus on one occasion and measuring its influence on performance on a subsequent occasion. Depending on the level of processing, priming can be perceptual or conceptual in nature. Perceptual priming occurs when exposure to the form of...

Reactions to the CEE

Expressions when greeting the patient looking at and listening the patient remembering the content of the last session and the dreams and stories of previous discussions knowing the important anniversary dates in the patient's life, and so on. These techniques tell the patient he or she is valued, worthy of listening to, and being helped. The CEE as a tool differs from the narrower specificity of other tools, such as interpretive comments about material previously out of the patient's conscious awareness. Once thought by psychoanalysts and analytically oriented clinicians to be the most crucial technique for therapeutic success, interpretations are now considered by some to be another valid tool but not the most valuable one. Hanna Levenson, in her 1995 review of time-limited therapies, considers the CEE to be the modernist way of construing the historically important accurate and precise interpretation of unconscious material, emphasizing the relational rather than the intrapsychic...

Thomas E Joiner Jr and Foluso M Williams

Skill building is a critical part of CBT for suicide, and specific methods used to promote this aspect of suicidal treatment will be described. Past research has shown that individuals with chronic suicidal behavior possess deficits in the areas of self-monitoring, distress tolerance, and emotional regulation (Linehan, 1993 Rudd, Joiner, & Rajab, 1996). These three constructs are interrelated therefore, it is posited that as one's levels of emotional awareness increase, the effectiveness in regulating mood increases as a result, the tolerance for distress increases and the manifestations of impulsivity decrease. thought record provides the patient with a method to rate the severity and duration of their suicidal thoughts, as well as an organized response to these thoughts and the change associated with these responses over time. The suicidal thought record is particularly beneficial to individuals who lack insight into the nature of their suicidal thoughts, and to individuals who...

Conditioning Of Type S

Conduct right views, right concentration, right mindfulness, right effort, right intentions, right speech, right action, and right livelihood . Generally, Claparede's early view of behavior initially was biological, and then later became functional and purposive, stressing the adap-tive response of the organism to the momentary situation (law of momentary interest). However, Claparede's choice of the term laws in his laws of conduct appears to be another instance of the early psychologists' loose, informal, and liberal use of the term law to describe general principles of behavior. Today, of course, usage of the term law in a scientific context, is restricted to more formal and empirically well-established descriptions of functional cause-and-effect relationships between, and among, variables (cf., Teigen, 2002). See also ALL-PORT'S FUNCTIONAL AUTONOMY PRINCIPLE BUDDHISM AND ZEN BUDDHISM, DOCTRINE OF LEAST EFFORT, PRINCIPLE OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT, PRINCIPLES THEORY OF MOTIVATION,...

Jungs Theory Of Personality

And accept the course of events and indications of their disintegration). One of the components of the collective unconscious (or objective psyche) is called archetypes (other names for this component are dominants, primordial images, imagoes, mythological images, and behavior patterns), which are universal ideas that are emotion-laden and create images visions that correspond allegedly to some aspect of the conscious situation in normal waking life (cf., theory of phylogenesis -refers to the origin and biological development of a species as a whole, but Jung extended this theory within psychology to include the development of the psyche and archetypes the theory of racial memory unconscious - holds that people inherit the common body of experiences and memories of all past humans, and that in human consciousness such elements continue from generation to generation thus, humans not only inherit their physical aspects from their ancestors, but their memories as well). Other components...

Corpus Callosum And Consciousness

The study of split-brain patients during the past 40 years has helped change our understanding of the nature of consciousness. It has offered a prime example of the modularization of cognitive processes and documented the distinctions between a dominant and nondominant hemisphere. It has raised the question of whether the callosum may have played a unique role in the development of human consciousness. One of the key observations made regarding the Vogel and Bogen series of commissurotomies was that severing the callosum seemed to yield two separate conscious entities with the ability to respond independently. The idea of a dual consciousness was embraced by some scientists such as Pucetti, who hypothesized that the human condition was always made up of dual-consciousnesses that were only revealed after the section of the callosum. Others rejected the status of the right hemisphere as conscious. Daniel Dennett concluded that the right hemisphere had, at best, a rudimentary self.

Freuds Theory Of Personality

From the id into the ego via operation of the identification mechanism, which matches subjective mental representations with objective physical reality, and use of various coping strategies (cf., defense mechanisms) bound energy - psychic energy in the secondary process, or conscious rational mode of mental functioning based on the reality principle, and accumulated and contained within particular groups of neurons, its flow being subject to control through binding (an operation that restricts the flow of libidinal energy, usually by the ego exerting restraint on the primary process or unconscious irrational mode of mental functioning based on the pleasure principle cf., nirvana principle - the tendency for the quantity of energy in the mental apparatus to reduce to zero) and anxiety - a state of tension that may be one of three types reality anxiety or fear of external world dangers, neurotic anxiety or fear of punishment, and moral anxiety or fear of the conscience involving...

Cortical Eye Fields and Saccades

Parietal Eye Field

Visually guided saccades survive SC lesions because the primate also has an elaborate neocortical network for visually guided saccades. The connectivity diagram of Fig. 13 summarizes these cortical pathways and helps explain most effects of experimental lesions. For example, the sparing of visually guided saccades following SC lesions is mediated by FEF projections to the brain stem saccade generator however, the SC normally provides a shorter path via its direct retinal projections, which explains the increase in saccade latency after SC damage. FEF lesions alone also spare visually guided saccades however, FEF lesions combined with SC lesions eliminate most visually guided saccades. Thus, the SC and FEF provide parallel pathways for visual stimuli to activate the brain stem saccade generator for the purpose of accurate, foveat-ing saccades. It is also the case that visually guided saccades are spared following lesions of primary visual cortex (V1) even though conscious awareness of...

Introduction and Definition

Consciousness has long been a perplexing subject for philosophers and physicians, and it may be argued that human consciousness is still poorly understood. However, emergency physicians need an operational definition for the disorders of consciousness that are frequently encountered in emergency departments. Dementia is a chronic state of reduced cognitive ability. The individual once was able to function but has lost intellectual skills and memory so that normal functioning has become impaired. The onset of dementia is typically difficult to pinpoint. Delirium or acute confusional state is typically of brief duration, and the degree of intellectual impairment often fluctuates rapidly. Thinking is disorganized and the ability to sustain attention is diminished. Psychosis indicates impairment of reality testing with delusions, hallucinations, disorganized behavior, or loosened associations ( Table.221-,1).

Motor Memory A Implicit and Explicit Memory Systems

The distinction between an explicit memory system, which depends on the MTL, and an implicit motor memory system has several implications for motor control in the human brain. Voluntary actions have been defined as those that are learned, attended, and based on a comparison among alternatives. This awareness depends on the explicit memory system. Other actions, including but by no means limited to reflex movements, proceed without conscious awareness. Some subconscious movements bear obvious markings of this unawareness, such as the stretch reflex or the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR). The latter serves as a case in point. When people move their head left while looking at something, their eyes move equally fast and equally far in the opposite direction. They are probably aware of the object at the focus of attention. However, they cannot report anything about the motor memory that allows them to keep looking directly at that object, regardless of their head movements. Adjusting the VOR...

Contemporary Shamanic Illness and Healing

The psychobiological basis of the shamanistic paradigm is revealed in its persistence in contemporary religious experiences (Stark, 1997) and psychological crises. Shamanic dynamics are reflected in the DSM-IV category spiritual emergencies, which includes spontaneous shamanic journeys possession the death and rebirth experience mystical experiences with psychotic features and experiences of psychic abilities (Walsh, 1990). The shamanic paradigm provides a useful framework for addressing these experiences as natural manifestations of human consciousness, and as developmental opportunities rather than pathologies. This reformulation permits addressing these powerful unconscious dynamics as opportunities for transformation to greater health, just as the shamanic initiatory crisis provides transformational potentials. Crisis experiences associated with shamanism attacks by spirits, death and dismemberment, depersonalization, and out-of-body experiences can be interpreted within the...

Cellular Automaton Model

- first described by the American computer engineer John McCarthy (1927- ) - refers to the design of hypothetical, or actual, computer programs or machines to accomplish things normally done by human minds, such as writing poetry, playing chess, thinking logically, or composing music the most demanding situations for AI (also called machine intelligence) are problems simulating functions of intelligence that are mainly unconscious (e.g., vision and language functions) strong AI refers to the viewpoint that all thinking is computation where conscious thought may be explained according to computational principles, and where feelings of conscious awareness are elicited merely by particular computations performed by the brain or by a computer and weak AI refers to the viewpoint that conscious awareness is a property of certain brain processes, and advances the notion that -whereas any physical behavior may be simulated by a computer using purely computational processes - computational...

ASC Bases of Shamanistic Therapies

ASC evoke paleomammalian brain or limbic system functions that manage autonomic nervous system balance, emotional mentation, self and social identity processes, bonding and attachment, and the integration of information. These contribute to healing, producing an integration of personal and social consciousness. The theta wave entrainment characteristic of ASC produces integration across hierarchical brain levels, an integration of pre- or unconscious functions into conscious awareness. ASC and ritual enhance integration of cognitive and emotional processes and information from different functional systems of the brain, providing optimal conditions for learning, attention, memory, and adaptation to novel situations (Mandell, 1980).

Measuring consciousness

Despite the popularity of experiments that dissociate direct and indirect measures of processing, it is not clear that this is the most appropriate way to characterize nonconscious perception. The problem has to do with the use of objective forced-choice tasks as the criterion for conscious awareness. This criterion rests on the assumption that direct measures of processing reflect only conscious processing, i.e., that above-chance performance in such tasks cannot be based on nonconscious processing of stimulus information. However it has been argued that this assumption should not be taken for granted. If nonconscious perceptual processing can influence performance on indirect

Dialectical Behavior Therapy

Oped to treat the seriously and chronically suicidal patient, DBT has evolved into a treatment for suicidal patients who also meet criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD), and it has since been adapted for BPD patients with presenting problems other than suicidal behaviors and for other disorders of emotion regulation. Treatment is based on a unique blend of behavioral psychology principles used to promote change, and Eastern mindfulness principles used to promote acceptance. This entry will describe the theoretical rationale, as well as the basic format of treatment, and will also briefly review the research on its efficacy.

Characteristics of Manualized Interventions

The typical treatment manual that relies on cognitive-behavioral procedures is a loosely associated set of empirically sound procedures, but with little in the way of a conceptual core. Although it is not our intention to single any one manualized approach out of the larger set, one illustration of this state of affairs is dialectic behavior therapy (DBT), which has been developed specifically for borderline personality disorder. An examination of the skills manual shows that there are elements of social skills training (especially interpersonal assertiveness), mindfulness exercises, exposure for fear reduction, and cognitive disputation to name a few. This has all been neatly packaged in a user-friendly format specifically formulated for the practicing clinician. The results of this packaging have indeed been encouraging, and the popularity of this approach has been impressive. On the other hand, there is no conceptual feature that unifies these interventions, and the application for...

Learning Principles and Behavioral Psychology

Level 1 disorders are characterized by behavioral dyscontrol and typically include disorders that are both severe and pervasive. The overall goal of Stage 1 treatment for Level 1 disorders is to help these patients increase control over their behavior and their lives. Standard DBT, which is the general focus of this chapter, is a Stage 1 treatment. Linehan's treatment manual and the existing research data focus on Stage 1 DBT. Behaviors that are targeted for treatment at this stage are arranged hierarchically as follows (1) reducing life-threatening behaviors (parasuicidal acts, including suicide attempts, high-risk suicidal ideation, plans and threats, as well as homicidal acts, plans, and threats) (2) reducing client and therapist behaviors that interfere with the therapy (e.g., missing sessions or arriving late, phoning at unreasonable hours, not returning phone calls, or pushing therapist or patient limits in any other manner) (3) reducing behavioral patterns that substantially...

Shared Manifold Hypothesis

Word or verbal unit in LTM, activated by speech sounds, writing, or an object event to which it refers imagen theory - refers to a representation of a visual image in LTM and modality effect - refers to any result of the presentation of information through different sensory modalities for example, the poorer immediate recall of simple verbal information presented to the visual modality as compared to the auditory modality, or the poorer long-term recall of complex verbal information presented to the auditory modality as compared to the visual modality . LTM, or secondary memory, includes several categories of memory, such as episodic memory (personal experience information is stored with mental tags about when, where, and how the information was acquired) semantic memory (factual information about the world, and the meanings of things, words, objects, etc.) perceptual memory (memory for visual, auditory, and other perceptual information, such as memory for people's faces and voices)...

Act Components

Much of the time people identify themselves by psychological content. They are the content of their thoughts. As cognitive content is defused, more emphasis is placed in ACT on self as context. The self as context is the observing self. It is the experience of an I that does not change or judge, but just experiences. Meditation and mindfulness exercises are used to help the client experience consciousness itself as the context for private experiences, not as the content of those experiences. Self as context work provides a safe psychological place from which acceptance, willingness, and defusion are possible.


Conscious awareness with recollection This occurs when a patient remembers intraoperative events. It is very rare and is what most of us associate with being 'awake during an operation'. Awareness is often due to faulty anaesthetic technique or failure to check equipment 1 . 2. Conscious awareness without recollection There may have been response to intraoperative events but no recollection afterwards.

Animal Cognition

The word ''cognition'' is derived from the Latin root cognitio, which means the ability to learn or know intensively. In modern psychological usage the concept refers to mental faculties whose activities include functions such as conscious awareness, thinking, perception, reasoning, problem solving, complex learning, judgment, and intentional action. The concept of cognition is difficult to pin down because it rests on the fact that processes such as thinking, reasoning, and intention are private events and are not directly observable. Therefore, the existence and action of these processes must be understood from overt behavior. For example, in a classic experiment re

Conscious experience

2.1 Conscious awareness has content The probably infinite range of conscious content is constrained by a maximum limit on the total content which can be held in consciousness at one time. This limit seems to vary over time, and on some occasions may shrink to one item when you really take notice of something, that particular content may fill your awareness to the complete exclusion of other content. As yet there is no clear link between this single-content focus and brain activity, although awareness of perceived objects can be pathologically limited to one single object at a time. This inability to simultaneously perceive multiple objects (simultanagnosia) has been observed in people with bilateral damage to parietal cortex (Berti, Papagno & Vallar, 1986). Did you experience more than a single thought (or percept, or image, or whatever content you were aware of) during that exercise Without practice, most people find it difficult or impossible to restrict conscious awareness to...

Somatosensory Area

Not only does the natural electrical activity of the brain reflect conscious experience, but electrical stimulation of brain tissue can evoke sudden changes in the content of consciousness. Stimulation of cortex in the brains of people with chronic seizures alters ongoing perception or triggers experiential recall of a previous autobiographical experience (Penfield, 1970). This stimulation technique helps in determining the kind of experience that might be lost if that part of the brain were to be surgically removed. Recently, a much less invasive method has been developed for cortical stimulation. Without even touching the head at all, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) can alter brain activity (Barker, Jalinous & Freeston, 1985), and a remarkable range of applications are likely to develop from this technique. For example, magnetic stimulation of visual cortex prevents conscious awareness of visual stimuli presented 100 msec earlier (Amassian et al., 1993).

Book preview

Section I of this book aims to elucidate the nature of human consciousness by discussing boundary conditions. Section II describes how neural systems in the brain contribute to the representation of phenomenal content and the rapid changes in this content. Section III reveals the neural basis of the mental frame which colors the experience of conscious content. Section IV takes a much longer view and considers the impact of brain evolution on human consciousness.

Kirk Strosahl

Cognitive fusion The act of perceiving private experiences such as thoughts and feelings from the perspective structured by the private event itself rather than the perspective of an observer of that event as a process. Reducing fusion is a key target of meditation, mindfulness, and deliteraliza-tion interventions in ACT. cultural change agenda The culturally sanctioned model most clients bring into therapy holds that the goal is to gain control of and eliminate negative personal content. This agenda for changing from an unhealthy person with issues to a healthy person without issues has the paradoxical effect of increasing suffering. literality The capacity of representational thought and language to take on literal meaning and for the derived stimulus functions of referents to dominate over other sources of behavior. An example is anticipatory panic attacks, which result from simply imagining being in a panic associated situation, such as a mall or elevator, and then taking those...

Theories of masking

As mentioned in the introduction to this chapter, there are many types of masking and these reflect different processing interactions. The most informative masking techniques for studying conscious awareness will be those which disrupt the causal chain of information processing events leading to consciousness at as late a stage as possible. The later the locus of masking, the greater the number of processes that will be left intact under masking, and the greater the number of processes that can be eliminated as being causally sufficient for consciousness. Marcel (1983b) proposed that all centrally masked sensory data are precon-sciously processed to a highly abstract level. Central masking prevents conscious awareness of stimulus information by interfering with the recovery of information. Recovery consists of linking perceptual information to its spatio-temporal sensory source, and involves the synthesis of information from the different specialist processors that analyse different...

Change Strategies

The use of didactic strategies is typical of the Stanford program which is based on teaching three skills modules (Mindfulness, Emotion Regulation, and Distress Tolerance) and the Leicester General Hospital program which adds an Eatingness module that includes didactics about the invalidating cultural and nutritional environment, weight regulation, and the effects of starvation.


Many theoretical models have endorsed Janet's idea that somatoform illness involves an alteration in attention that prevents processed information from entering conscious awareness. Recent electrophysio-logical research indicating that conversion disorder is associated with normal early evoked potentials but a deficit in the later P300 component provides strong support for such a view. Several cognitive and psychophysiological studies have also found evidence for a diffuse attentional deficit in individuals with conversion symptoms, with patients showing decrements on tasks assessing vigilance, habituation, cognitive flexibility, set shifting, and mental transformation. However, the precise nature of the atten-tional deficit underlying conversion remains unclear further research is required if it is to be described in greater detail.


In relation to the individual's parents (or other emotionally significant figures) at an earlier point in time (usually childhood) onto the therapist. Transference is unconscious and involuntary, the sources being unrecognized, and may be experienced by the individual as rational or may feel inappropriate and be a source of internal distress. There is disagreement within child psychoanalysis whether young children are capable of transference since the young child is actively involved with his or her parents in reality. A young child may behave toward his therapist in much the same way he behaves with his parents but this may be less an issue of transference and more the result of habitual ways of interacting with others. For example, a 3-year-old who is imperious and demanding with his parents may be equally so with his therapist, but this is less likely to be transference and much more likely to be the way this child treats any important adult. Latency-age children in the course of...

Case Example

The use of elaborate board games, while reflecting age-appropriate interests, often narrow the focus of the therapeutic work to the task of mastering specific rules and strategies, thereby closing off other avenues of representation and communication that might be expressed and observed more easily in a less demanding game. The repetitive and circumscribed nature of elaborate games may, in fact, serve the defensive function of avoiding conscious awareness of fantasies and associated troubling feelings. In addition to the tasks of listening, observing, and exploring the contents of the imaginative play, games, or discussions, the therapist must be able to appreciate the importance of children's defensive operations in order to assist in developing a safe enough forum in which fantasies and feelings can be elaborated. In some treatments, such as John's, the original use of displacement (or the expression of conflictual themes and feelings via characters in play, narratives accompanying...


Lesions restricted to primary sensory areas seem to be compatible with the sparing of many activities performed in the whole sensorimotor system (involving sensory and motor areas from the parietal to the frontal cortex) (see also Stoerig and Cowey, 1993). It is remarkable that the most patent deficit observed after such lesion is the loss of conscious perception reported by these patients. In line with the current thinking about connections within the visual system, blindsight raises the question of the possible implication of V1 connections in perceptual awareness (see Milner, 1995). Synchronization has been considered as essential for conscious awareness (see Picton and Stuss, 1994). For example, synchronization of neuronal activity can be observed between V1 and V2, and V2 and MT, and may involve other areas (see Bullier and Nowak, 1995). Such a mechanism may theoretically explain why many functions of vision are partially spared after a V1 lesion (because of subcortical...


Jainism is an Indian religion that developed about the sixth century b.c.e. The Jains speak of the twenty-four tirthankaras, such as their founder Mahavira, who are the makers of the path or causeway to liberation, enabling people to cross over samsara. The Jain view of death is related to its view of liberation Because karmas (actions) cause bondage in the cycles of existence (reincarnation), they should be eliminated by fasting and meditation leading to the realization of liberation, the radical autonomy of pure consciousness (kaivalya).


Analysis of these components of the patient's inner world cannot proceed unless these elements have been drawn into conscious awareness to some degree. Confrontation can often usefully accomplish this objective. Only when the patient is aware of this dimension of his or her inner life is it possible to seek further for explanation and understanding.

Other Parasomnias

The other parasomnias are disorders in which the phenomena of interest are not closely associated with a particular stage of sleep. Of the other parasomnias, features of three may suggest the possibility of epilepsy sleep bruxism, sleep enuresis, and nocturnal dissociative disorder. In the psychogenic nocturnal dissociative disorder, conscious awareness becomes dissociated from behavior, and patients perform complex activities for which they are amnestic. Patients are often young women with psychiatric conditions, and the episodes are sometimes accompanied by self-mutilating behavior and injuries.

McGill University

From this perspective, consciousness is not something mystical and ethereal that defies attempts to relate it to the brain it is a property of all brains with the necessary hardware. The question is, what is the fundamental process of consciousness, and what are the mechanisms that give rise to our unique experience of consciousness We believe that being conscious reflects a preparatory and comparative process carried out by the brain in order to ready the organism for perception. This readiness for perception, coupled with environmental input, is consciousness. A more difficult aspect of consciousness is the phenomenological quality of being a person with a sense of individuality and historical place. Concern for this phenomenological aspect of human consciousness has lead some people to be dissatisfied with brain models of consciousness. However, there are certain aspects of brain evolution that may allow us to adequately account for the human phenomenological experience of...

Surgical technique

At all stages of operative planning, the patient must be involved in the decisions that are made. Women must be told that no operation will remove all risk, but risk reduction maybe of the order of over 80 . Whether or not to conserve the nipple is controversial. Breast tissue immediately deep to the nipple areolar complex (NAC) is uncommonly a site of primary breast cancer, but retention of this tissue must theoretically carry a slight diminution in risk reduction. With awareness of this, most women who undergo risk-reducing mastectomy with immediate reconstruction do request NAC preservation, but are warned that NAC sensory loss is likely and NAC ischaemic loss possible.


There are certainly aspects of human consciousness that cannot be accounted for in our model. For example, cortical circuits supporting human language certainly contribute to and alter the conscious experience (see Edelman, 1989). At the present time, we do not have a clear notion of how to fit these circuits and their functions into our model. However, this should not serve as a deterrent to the claim that consciousness can be related to the brain. After all, human language is a product of the brain and its influence and contribution to consciousness must be through cerebral means.


According to AMM, subjective experience arises by virtue of indirect neural communication between numerous brain areas devoted to sensory, motor, and other domains of cortical processing. One corollary to AMM is that direct communication between content-specific areas does not suffice to produce conscious content. We can distinguish between three possible ways in which communication among a given set of brain areas could lack mediated access, thereby ensuring that the outputs of these areas do not appear in the contents of conscious awareness. First, it could be the case that indirect circuitry simply has never evolved to provide mediated access to the given set of brain areas. That is, perhaps our ancestral lineage includes no instances of the given set of remapped between them, and they are not linked indirectly via a contentgeneral circuit. In this case, Recoding Theory predicts that the information would appear in the contents of conscious experience, whereas AMM asserts that the...

Musical Memory

Since music is inherently extended across time, music perception demands an ability to retain sounds temporarily in memory, either passively, as in short term or echoic auditory memory, or actively as the contents of auditory working memory. Other cognitive operations can then be applied to these contents. If sufficiently encoded, they may become part of long-term episodic memory, consciously recallable along with the original context (''They're playing our song''). Procedural memories for musical information, and for the motor movements to produce them, may also be formed even without conscious awareness (''What's that tune I'm whistling '').

Procedural Memory

Procedural or implicit memories can also be formed without conscious awareness. Their effects can be detected in facilitated responses to primed stimuli. The chord priming paradigm developed by Jamshed Bharhucha has been used to test an auditory agnosic, and the results suggest that this sort of priming depends on secondary rather than primary auditory cortex. Procedural learning can also be demonstrated in melodic paradigms, in which previous exposure to a tone sequence can prime choices for its completion later without conscious awareness of having heard it before. The neural bases underlying the formation and retrieval of such procedural memories have not been explored in specifically musical contexts. Procedural learning is ubiquitous in music perception and in music production. A full understanding of how the human brain processes and produces music will depend in part on further studies in this area.

ProM tasks Provisos

Not all prospective memory activities are alike, and thus, to facilitate communication, researchers have proposed a number of labels to distinguish, for example, among monitoring, ProM proper, and habitual ProM. Monitoring describes the dual-task situation that occurs, for example, in the course of a conversation when we concentrate on what to say after another person stops speaking or when we carry on with other activities while waiting for the water to boil. In monitoring activities, intentions are consciously held throughout the retention interval, and thus they raise no questions about the context-appropriate re-instantiation of previously formed plans and intentions. By contrast, in the case of the prospective activities that are the focus of the present chapter, there often is a long delay between making a plan and executing it, and because subjects' attention is generally focused elsewhere (i.e., on unrelated activities) during this delay, these tasks require that a previously...

Treatment Structure

Stage I DBT for ED with BPD (e.g., Leicester General Hospital) includes weekly individual psychotherapy (1 hour), skills group (2 hours), consultation team for therapists (2 hours), and out-of-session phone consultation, and ancillary treatments (e.g., pharmacotherapy). Individual psychotherapy involves focusing on the highest behavior according to the treatment hierarchy. Skills group involves four modules mindfulness, interpersonal effectiveness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance. The Leicester General Hospital trial included these modules and an Eatingness module (five to six sessions). This involves didactics as described but also application of mindfulness to eating (e.g., mindfully planning, regular eating), problem-solving and distress tolerance skills for urges to binge and purge, and radical acceptance of body image. Stanford's Stage III DBT program involves three skills modules delivered in groups (BED) or individually (BN) (20 sessions).

The standard model

Episodic memory refers to memory for particular, autobiographical episodes that have a distinct spatio-temporal context and involves a detailed re-experiencing of the initial event. Tulving (1985) refers to this re-experience as mental time travel which relies on autonoetic consciousness (consciousness with the self in it). In studies of anterograde memory, episodic memory is assessed by tests of recollection, which refers to representation of past experiences and includes not only the content of those experiences but also their spatial-temporal context. Building on Tulving's distinction, Moscovitch (1995, 2000) emphasized that episodic memory also includes the conscious experience accompanying the episode. Put succinctly, episodic memory refers to memory of the experience of the event, of which conscious awareness is a part.

Systems neuroscience

The unique organizational details of each person's brain continue to be refined as a result of ongoing experience throughout life. How does this unique pattern of connectivity within each individual's brain affect mental activity Even when sensing the same physical stimulus, different people can have very distinct conscious experiences. Two people, one a musician and the other a painter, are likely to have brains which differ in the way auditory or visual sensory information is reflected in the content of conscious awareness. As yet, relatively little is known regarding the relation between idiosyncratic variation in neuroconnectivity on the one hand, and individual differences in phenomenal experience on the other.

Gray Matter

The parietal lobes are primarily responsible for receiving and processing sensory input such as touch, pressure, heat, cold, and pain. The parietal lobes are also involved in the perception of body awareness and the construction of a spatial coordinate system (mental map) to represent the world around us. Individuals with damage to the right parietal lobe often show striking abnormalities in body image and spatial relations, such as failing to attend to part of the body or space (contralateral neglect). Patients with damage to the left parietal lobe often experience difficulty with writing (agraphia), an inability to recognize familiar objects (agnosia), and language disorders (aphasia). Bilateral damage can lead to problems with visual attention and motor abilities. As with the frontal gray matter, parietal gray matter increases during childhood and decreases during adolescence, peaking at 10.2 years in girls and 11.8 years in boys (Fig. 2).


This general principle has at least two important meanings in psychological theory. In one case, for the areas of physiology, cognition, emotion, and motivation, the notion of constancy derives from the first law of thermodynamics (dealing with conservation of energy) in physics and may be considered as a basis for the principle of homeostasis where organisms are motivated to maintain biological constancy of bodily functions and mechanisms (such as temperature regulation and hunger reduction), and psychological balance among mental cognitive mechanisms. In another case, in the area of psychoanalysis, the principle of constancy refers to the proposition that the amount of psychic energy within the person's mental processes remains constant so that regulation of mental stability may be achieved either through discharge of excess energy (as via abreaction or release of emotional energy following the recollection of a painful memory that has been repressed), or...

Mark C Price

Examples of stimulus displays in a masking experiment. The left panel depicts a target word, and the right panel depicts a mask composed of overlapping letters. Each display might appear in the same location for about 10 milliseconds. Depending on the exact conditions of presentation, and on individual variation between subjects, effective masking which precludes conscious awareness of the stimulus might typically be achieved with an interval of 20 - 50 milliseconds between displays. Figure 2.1. Examples of stimulus displays in a masking experiment. The left panel depicts a target word, and the right panel depicts a mask composed of overlapping letters. Each display might appear in the same location for about 10 milliseconds. Depending on the exact conditions of presentation, and on individual variation between subjects, effective masking which precludes conscious awareness of the stimulus might typically be achieved with an interval of 20 - 50 milliseconds between...


In the West, the idea of the great chain of being made it easier to imagine human beings falling through sin into animal form than to imagine animals rising to human level. It has been easier to imagine human consciousness trapped inside an animal body than to disregard the physical shape of the animal so that animals can actually metamorphose into humans. Often, once a human being transformed into an animal has learned a lesson in true humanity, as in Apuleius's The Golden Ass (2nd century A.D.), he or she is restored to human shape. In this respect, the metamorphosis can be interpreted as a rite of passage. As modern theorists have concluded, metamorphoses are used in Western literature primarily to explore what it means to be human.

Case 3

Movements when running to the mailbox. These movements, described as arm extensions and toe curling, would last for 30 seconds. At times during these paroxysmal episodes she might not be able to speak, but retained full consciousness. There was no postictal period and no loss of bowel or bladder control. After examination by a pediatric neurologist, with negative results on electroencephalogram and MRI, she was finally diagnosed as having PKD. She was again started on phenobarbital, but this medication caused depression and had to be suspended. Her therapy was changed to Tegretol (carbamazepine) 100 mg day, which successfully prevented further episodes. When she reached puberty at the age of 12, the Tegretol was increased to a twice-a-day dosing. Most recently, she was taking Tegretol-XR 200 mg once a day. She noticed that if she missed more than 1 dose, she experienced paroxysmal dystonic episodes. She believed that her episodes were now stronger and could occur more frequently. If...

The Goals of Therapy

The main goal of psychotherapy is to foster human flourishing, and this means, for existential psychotherapy, living authentically As we have noted, living authentically means absorbed activity in the world, with awareness of its being or nature. The two parts of this definition (absorbed activity and awareness) may be examined separately. d. The Meaningfulness of Behavior Existential analysis of the surface meanings implied by delusions, transference, and dreams is an instance of the more general existentialist principle, shared with psychoanalysis, that all behaviors are meaningful. Meaningful behavior, according to Heidegger, does not require and, in fact, usually lacks, deliberation or even conscious awareness of judgments, motives, or plans. Thus, even acts that appear automatic, reflexive, stereotyped, or driven may be meaningful and reflect a person's self-understanding. In most ordinary situations, the meaning of behavior can be easily understood we read the meaning from the...

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