Discussion

Silk The stability of these children's responses is quite striking. One explanation for this could be that children are early on rewarded for this positive behaviour in a consistent fashion. Parents begin to treat them in a certain way and this becomes part of who they are. The stability is generated by the environment in which they are rewarded. What do the data tell us about the sources contributing to this stability Spinrad I don't want to speak directly to the stability, because I don't...

A social interaction analysis

What does it mean to adopt a social interaction analysis to empathy and fairness It means at least four things. First, it means that it conceptualizes these tendencies in terms of social interactions, which are defined in terms of persons and situations (see Kelley et al 2003). Specifically, for a dyad, social interaction is defined as Social Interaction F (Self, Partner and Situation) A key component of interaction is the Situation, as they afford various orientations that people may take to...

Fear recognition and the amygdala

Model Brain With Dementia

Several lesion studies Adolphs et al 1994, Anderson amp Phelps 2000, Anderson et al 2000, Calder et al 1996, Young et al 1996 , complemented by functional imaging studies Breiter et al 1996, Morris et al 1996, Whalen et al 2001 , have demonstrated that the human amygdala is critical for normal judgments about the internal states of others from viewing pictures of their facial expressions. Some studies have found a disproportionately severe impairment in recognizing fear Adolphs et al 1995,...

Neuroimaging and the intentional stance

One of the greatest strengths of neuroimaging approaches such as functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI and positron emission tomography PET is its potential to covertly examine mental processes without the confound of explicit probes for self-report. There have been a handful of studies that have examined the neural correlates of intentionality cues, using animations like those created by Heider and Simmel 1944 . Castelli and colleagues 2000 presented three types of animations while...

Intentional attunement embodied simulation and empathy

Various mirror neurons matching systems mediate between the multimodal experiential knowledge we hold of our lived body, and the experience we make of others. Such body-related experiential knowledge enables a direct grasping of the sense of the actions performed by others, and of the emotions and sensations they experience. Our capacity to conceive of the acting bodies of others as persons like us depends on the constitution of a shared meaningful interpersonal space. This 'shared manifold'...

Mirror neurons and the understanding of intentions

When an individual starts a movement aimed to attain a goal, such as picking up a pen, he she has clear in mind what he she is going to do, for example writing a note on a piece of paper. In this simple sequence of motor acts the final goal of the whole action is present in the agent's mind and is somehow reflected in each motor act of the sequence. The action intention, therefore, is set before the beginning of the movements. This also means that when we are going to execute a given action we...

The study of empathy

In the past few years, the study of the social and emotional brain has captured the interest of many researchers from a diverse range of disciplines. A new interdisciplinary field, social cognitive neuroscience, has emerged. There have been several special issues of science devoted to this topic and a number of review articles e.g. Adolphs 2003, Ochsner amp Lieberman 2001, Frith amp Wolpert 2004 . The study of empathy has become the focus of recent investigation in social neuroscience and can...