Catheter navigation systems have been developed that use low energy radiofrequency signals or ultrasound signals to localise catheters. These systems permit identification of points of interest in three dimensional space, cataloging of ablation sites, and re-navigation to sites of interest. However, one system does not create activation or isopotential maps, and does not integrate anatomy with physiology. Compared with the more complete mapping systems described above, its main advantage is reduced cost. Little clinical experience is available for the other system because of its recent introduction.
Cardiac imaging techniques, including intracardiac echo-cardiography, computed tomographic scanning, and magnetic resonance imaging have been used to plan or guide ablation.
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