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1 Hochman JS, Sleeper LA, Webb JG, et al. Early revascularization in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock. N Engl J Med 1999;341:625-34.

► Randomised controlled trial comparing an early revascularisation strategy to an initial medical stabilisation strategy in the setting of cardiogenic shock.

2 Hochman JS, Sleeper LA, White HD, et al. One-year survival following early revascularization for cardiogenic shock. JAMA 2001;285:190-2.

► One year follow up of the SHOCK trial.

3 Ryan TJ, Anderson JL, Antman EM, et al. 1999 update: ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines. (Committee on management of acute myocardial infarction). Circulation 1999;100:1016-30.

4 Rogers WJ, Canto JG, Lambrew CT, et al. Temporal trends in the treatment of 1.5 million patients with myocardial infarction in the US from 1990 through 1999. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36:2056-63.

5 Goldberg RJ, Samad NA, Yarzebski J, et al. Temporal trends in cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction. N EnglJMed 1999;340:1162-68.

► Large community study showing a decline in mortality but no change in incidence of shock over time.

6 Hasdai D, Harrington RA, Hochman JS, et al. Platelet glycoprotein Ilb/IIIa blockade and outcome of cardiogenic shock complicating acute coronary syndromes without persistent ST- segment elevation. JAm CollCardiol 2000;36:685-92.

7 Holmes DR Jr, Berger PB, Hochman JS, et al. Cardiogenic shock in patients with acute ischemic syndromes with and without ST-segment elevation. Circulation 1999;100:2067-73.

8 Holmes DR Jr, Bates ER, Kleiman NS, et al. Contemporary reperfusion therapy for cardiogenic shock: the GUSTO-I trial experience. J Am Coll Cardiol 1995;26:668-74.

9 Hasdai D, Califf RM, Thompson TD, etal. Predictors of cardiogenic shock after thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35:136-43.

10 Hasdai D, Topol EJ, Califf RM, etal. Cardiogenic shock complicating acute coronary syndromes. Lancet 2000;356:749-56.

► Recent review with emphasis on predictive modelling.

11 Menon V, Slater JN, White HD, etal. Acute myocardial infarction complicated by systemic hypoperfusion without hypotension: report from the SHOCK trial registry. Am J Med 2000;108:374-80.

► Clinical description and outcome of "pre-shock".

12 Menon V, White H, Lejemtel T, et al. The clinical profile of patients with suspected cardiogenic shock due to predominant left ventricular failure. A report from the SHOCK trial registry. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36:1071-6.

13 Swan HJ, Forrester JS, Diamond G, etal. Hemodynamic spectrum of myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock; a conceptual model. Circulation 1972;45:1097-110.

14 Forrester JS, Diamond GA, Swan HJC. Correlative classification of clinical and hemodynamic function after acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1977;39:137-45.

15 Hasdai D, Holmes DR Jr, Califf RM, etal. Cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction: predictors of death. Am Heart J 1999;138:21-31.

16 Lee L, Bates ER, Pitt B, etal. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty improves survival in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock. Circulation 1988;78:1345-51.

17 Verna E, Repetto S, Boscarini M, etal. Emergency coronary angioplasty in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction or cardiogenic shock after acute myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J 1989;10:958-66.

18 Moosvi AR, Khaja F, Villanueva L, et al. Early revascularization improves survival in cardiogenic shock complicating myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 1992;19:907-14.

19 Hochman JS, Sleeper LA, Godfrey E, et al. Should we emergently revascularize occluded coronaries for cardiogenic shock: an international randomized trial of emergency PTCA/CABG-trial design. Am Heart J 1999;137:313-21.

20 Urban P, Stauffer JC, Bleed D, et al. A randomized evaluation of early revascularization to treat shock complicating acute myocardial infarction: the (Swiss) multicenter trial of angioplasty for shock-(S)MASH. Eur Heart J 1999;20:1030-8.

21 Berger PB, Holmes DR Jr, Stebbins L, et al. Impact of an aggressive invasive catheterization and revascularization strategy on mortality in patients with cardiogenic shock in the global utilization of streptokinase and tissue plasminogen activator for occluded coronary arteries (GUSTO-I) trial: an observational study. Circulation 1997;96:122-7.

22 Carnendran L, Abboud R, Sleeper LA, etal. Trends in cardiogenic shock: report from the SHOCK study. Eur Heart J 2001;22:472-8.

23 Fibrinolytic Therapy Trialists (FTT) Collaborative Group. Indications for fibrinolytic therapy in suspected acute myocardial infarction: collaborative overview of early mortality and major morbidity results from all randomized trials of more than 1000 patients. Lancet 1994;343:311-22.

24 Wong SC, Sanborn T, Sleeper LA, et al. Angiographic findings and clinical correlates in patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction: a report from the SHOCK trial registry. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36:1077-83.

25 Ajani AE, Maruff P, Warren R, et al. Impact of early percutaneous coronary intervention on short- and long-term outcomes in patients with cardiogenic shock after acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 2001;87:633-5.

26 Waksman R, Weiss AT, Gotsman MS, et al. Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation improves survival in cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J 1993;14:71-4.

27 Kovack PJ, Rasak MA, Bates ER, et al. Thrombolysis plus aortic counterpulsation: improved survival in patients who present to community hospitals with cardiogenic shock. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;29:1454-8.

28 Hudson MP, Granger CB, Stebbins A, etal. Cardiogenic shock survival and use of intraortic balloon counterpulsation: results from GUSTO-I and III trials. Circulation 1999;100:I-370.

29 Barron HV, Every N, Parsons LS, et al. The use of intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation in patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction; data from the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction 2. Am Heart J 200';141:933-9.

30 Scheidt S, Wilner G, Mueller H, et al. Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation in cardiogenic shock: report of a cooperative clinical trial. N Engl J Med 1973;288:979-84.

► Classic early paper on the utility of IABP to stabilise patients in the setting of shock.

40 3' Menon V, Hochman JS, Stebbins A, et al. Lack of progress in cardiogenic shock: lessons from the GUSTO trials. EurHeartJ 2000;21 :'928-36.

32 Dzavik V, Sleeper LA, Saucedo J, et al. Early revascularization is associated with improved survival in patients aged >75 years with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock: a report from the SHOCK registry. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;39:330A.

33 Gertz SD, Kragel AH, Kalan JM, et al. Comparison of coronary and myocardial morphologic findings in patients with and without thrombolytic during fatal first myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1990;66:904-9.

34 Honan MB, Harrell FE Jr, Reimer KA, et al. Cardiac rupture, mortality and timing of thrombolytic therapy: a meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990;16:359-67.

35 Crenshaw BS, Granger CB, Birnbaum Y, et al. Risk factors, angiographic patterns, and outcomes in patients with ventricular septal defect complicating acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 2000;101:27-32.

36 Menon V, Webb JG, Hillis LD, et al. Outcome and profile of ventricular septal rupture with cardiogenic shock after myocardial infarction:

a report from the SHOCK trial registry. JAm CollCardiol 2000;36:1110-6.

► Largest clinical experience with ventricular septal rupture in the setting of cardiogenic shock.

37 Cotter G, Kaluski E, Blatt A, et al. L-NMMA (a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) is effective in the treatment of cardiogenic shock. Circulation 2000;101:1358-61.

38 Van den Berghe G, Wouters P, Weekers F, et al. Intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1359-67.

SECTION II: HEART FAILURE

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