References

1 Molander N. Sudden natural death in later childhood and adolescence. Arch Dis Child 1982;57:572-6.

2 Driscoll DJ, Edwards WD. Sudden unexpected death in children and adolescents. J Am Coll Cardiol 1985;5:118B-21B.

3 Neuspiel DR, Kuller LH. Sudden and unexpected natural death in childhood and adolescence. JAMA 1985;254:1321-5.

4 Wren C, O'Sullivan JJ, Wright C. Sudden death in children and adolescents. Heart 2000;83:410-3.

► A recent population based investigation of sudden death at age 1-20 years, looking at all causes.

5 Walsh CK, Krongrad E. Terminal cardiac electrical activity in pediatric patients. Am J Cardiol 1983;51:557-61.

6 Berul CI. Neonatal long QT syndrome and sudden cardiac death. Prog Pediatr Cardiol 2001;11:47-54.

7 Silka MJ, Hardy BG, Menashe VD, et al. A population-based prospective evaluation of risk of sudden cardiac death after operation for common congenital heart defects. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998;32:245-51.

► An important study identifying the main postoperative diagnoses with an increased risk of late sudden death.

8 Harrison DA, Connelly M, Harris L, et al. Sudden cardiac death in the adult with congenital heart disease. Can J Cardiol 1996;12:1161-3.

► Forty three per cent of deaths not related to surgery in patients in the adult congenital clinic were sudden. Eisenmenger syndrome was common. Very few patients had preceding clinical ventricular arrhythmias.

9 Wren C. Late postoperative arrhythmias. In: Wren C, Campbell RWF, eds. Paediatric cardiac arrhythmias. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996:238-59.

10 Saul JP, Alexander ME. Preventing sudden death after repair of tetralogy of Fallot: complex therapy for complex patients. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1999;10:1271-87.

► A helpful review of the problems in prediction and prevention of late sudden death late after tetralogy repair.

11 Gatzoulis MA, Balaji S, Webber SA, et al. Risk factors for arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death late after repair of tetralogy of Fallot: a multicentre study. Lancet 2000;356:975-81.

12 Watkins H. Sudden death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med 2000;342:422-4.

13 McKenna WJ, Behr ER. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: management, risk stratification, and prevention of sudden death. Heart 2002;87:169-76.

► A review of prediction and prevention, mainly in adult patients.

14 Vincent GM. Role of DNA testing for diagnosis, management, and genetic screening in long QT syndrome, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and Marfan syndrome. Heart 2001;86:12-4.

► A review of the contribution of genetic investigation to the identification of patients with familial, potentially life threatening disorders.

15 Corrado D, Basso C, Thiene G. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy: diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Heart 2000;83:588-95.

16 Maron BJ, Shirani J, Poliac LC, et al. Sudden death in young competitive athletes. JAMA 1996;276:199-204.

► A retrospective series showing that 85% of sudden deaths were cardiovascular and 90% occurred during or immediately after activity. The most common diagnoses were hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and coronary artery anomalies.

17 Garson A Jr, Dick M, Fournier A, et al. The long QT syndrome children. An international study of 287 patients. Circulation 1993;87:1866-72.

18 Liberthson RR. Sudden death from cardiac causes in children and young adults. N Engl J Med 1996;334:1039-44.

► A detailed and authoritative review of sudden cardiac death.

19 McLeod KA. Dizziness and syncope in adolescence. Heart 2001;86:350-4.

► A comprehensive review of mainly non life-threatening causes of syncope.

20 Ino T, Yabuta K, Yamauchi K. Heart disease screening in Japanese children. BMJ 1993;306:1128.

Additional references appear on the Heart website-www.heartjnl.com

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