Venous access

Apart from failure to gain venous access, pneumothorax or haemothorax relating to subcla-vian puncture are the most common problems, particularly in inexperienced hands. These can be avoided most easily by choosing another route; the anatomy of the subclavian vessels is very variable and there is no guaranteed method for avoiding pneumothorax or accidental puncture of the artery.

Figure 22.3. The anterolateral position for transcutaneous pacing electrodes.
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