Some Basic and Applied Principles of Cancer Chemotherapy

Although our understanding of the basic molecular nature of the neoplastic transformation is still relatively primitive, significant advances have been made during the past three decades in the successful treatment of neoplasms that were not curable by surgery and or radiation alone prior to 1970. The principal modality (used alone or in combination) that has resulted in significant improvement in treating a number of neoplasms, many of which are in persons less than 30 years of age (Chapter...

Biochemical Theories Of Carcinogenesis And Cancer

Although some understanding of biochemical reactions occurring in living systems such as fermentation were known during the latter half of the nineteenth century, quantitative studies on such reactions were pioneered by the German chemist Otto Warburg. Warburg was recognized internationally for his investigations in photosynthesis in addition, he made a very significant initial contribution to our understanding of biochemical reactions occurring in neoplastic cells. Glycolysis of Cancer Cells...

The Definition Of Neoplasia

As an illustration of the enigma that cancer has presented to physicians and scientists over the years, it was not until the 1920s that meaningful attempts were made to define cancer. In the ensuing half-century, a number of definitions of this biological phenomenon were proposed, mostly by physicians and scientists but more recently also by lay persons writing for the scientific press. Some definitions have been rather extensive and detailed, usually reflecting the author's basic experience...

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L., Young, R. C., Greene, M. H., Hubbard, S. M., Postal, M. G., Duffey, P. L., and DeVita Jr., V. T. Decreasing risk of leukemia with prolonged follow-up after chemotherapy and radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease. N. Engl. J. Med., 376 710-714, 1987. Block, G. Vitamin C and cancer prevention the epidemiologic evidence. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 53 270S-282S, 1991. Blot, W. J., Li, J.-Y., Taylor, P. R., and Li, B. Lung cancer and vitamin supplementation. N. Engl. J. Med., 331...

Immunobiology of the Host Tumor Relationship TcRa and TcRS gene complex

Figure 19.11 Schematic diagram of the germline configuration of the four human T-cell receptor (TcR) gene complexes. The TcR-a gene complex consists of more than 50 Va gene segments, a long stretch of J gene segments, and 1 Ca gene segment. The TcR-S locus is located within the TCR-a gene complex as shown and consists of many fewer Vs (about 6), Ds (3), Js (3), and 1Cs gene segment. The TcR-p gene complex contains about 51 Vp gene segments grouped in 24 families and two Cp gene segments that...

Mutational Theory Of Inherited And Spontaneous Sporadic Cancer

While the diseases listed in Table 5.1 presumably develop as a result of mutations within a single gene, mostly unique to that disease, this knowledge tells us little about how the disease actually develops. In fact, if the mutation is in the germline, then every cell of the organism possesses a copy of that mutated gene within its nucleus. If such a mutational change were truly dominant in all cells, the host would be expected to develop neoplasms of numerous if not all tissues. This does not...

Exogenous Modifiers And Cancer Prevention

Although the effective therapy of cancer is an ultimate goal of medical science, the prevention of cancer is, at our present state of knowledge, the most effective and, relatively, the most inexpensive mode of controlling this disease. The prevention of cancer has been discussed by a number of authors (Schottenfeld, 1981 Hirayama, 1992 Doll, 1996). Optimistically, our knowledge of the incidence of neoplasia in the human suggests that age-specific incidence rates might be reduced by as much as...

Chronic Irritation And Trauma As Factors In Carcinogenesis

Although the general concept that chronic irritation is a carcinogenic stimulus is no longer accepted, in certain conditions chronic inflammation in humans may predispose to neoplasia. One of the best examples is the chronic draining sinus, usually resulting from chronic infections such as osteomyelitis. Such chronic infections are relatively rare today however, in the past, when bone infections were rather common, epidermoid carcinomas occasionally arose in the skin near chronic draining...

Carbohydrate Metabolism and Gluconeogenesis in the Cancer Bearing Organism

Resting Metabolic Rate Cancer

One of the earliest metabolic abnormalities described in cancer patients was that of glucose intolerance (Rohdenberg et al., 1919). Glucose intolerance is evidenced by increased concentrations and delayed clearance of blood glucose following oral or intravenous glucose administration (Holroyde and Reichard, 1981). Such an effect may be due, at least in part, to tissue insensitivity to insulin as well as a defective response of P cells of the pancreas to insulin secretion following...

Genetic Carcinogenesis The Key To Unlocking The Secrets Of Cancer

From this overview, the student will hopefully appreciate that the explosion in our knowledge of genetic mechanisms is reflected in a dramatic increase in our understanding of neoplasia and its genesis. In the remainder of this text, there are numerous other examples verifying this statement. However, as indicated earlier in this chapter, germline genetic alterations do not constitute the major cause of neoplasia in the human, although especially the multifactorial, polygenic area may be...

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Cancer as a disease and of cancer research in this country. This report showed that cancer is the primary health concern of the people of the United States. In several polls, approximately two-thirds of those questioned admitted fearing cancer more than any other disease. Of 200 million Americans living in 1970, some 50 million were destined to develop cancer, and approximately 34 million would die of the disease. According to the American Cancer Society 1993 , about 85 million Americans living...