Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive degeneration of spinal motor neurons. Systemic delivery of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has therapeutic potential but is limited clinically because of systemic side effects, short half-life, and the inability to cross the BBB.[10] Continuous intrathecal delivery of CNTF proximal to the nerve roots in the spinal cord could result in less side effects and better efficacy of CNTF in ALS patients.[11] After safety, toxicology, and preclinical evaluation, a clinical trial was performed to establish the safety of encapsulated CNTF-producing cells in ALS patients. Six ALS patients with early-stage disease received BHK cells that were encapsulated into 5 cm long x 0.6-mm diameter hollow membranes and implanted into the lumbar intrathecal space. CNTF from the cells was found in all six patients at 3-4 months postimplantation. All six explanted devices had viable cells and detectable CNTF secretion. More recently, a phase I/II clinical trial was initiated in 12 ALS patients using the same approach. CNTF was detectable for several weeks in the CSF of 9 out of 12 patients, and only a very weak antigenic immune response was detected with bovine fetuin as the main antigenic component.[12]

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Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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