Applications in Serotyping Genotyping and Subgrouping Viruses

Multiplex PCR has been shown to be a powerful and cost-effective tool for typing and subtyping virus strains in different epidemiological studies.

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Fig. 2 gB Genotyping of clinical strains of CMV. From left to right lanes: gB2 (613 bp), gB 1 (420 bp), gB3 (190 bp), gB4 (465 bp), gB1 and gB3, gB1, molecular weights in base pairs. (View this art in color at www.dekker.com.)

For example, CMV gB was genotyped directly from clinical specimens by using multiplex nested PCR (M-nPCR) technology.[16] Specifically, a pair of primers to conserved regions of all gB genotypes within the gB gene (gB and gpUL55) was used for primary amplification. A mixture of nested primers to specific and conserved regions of each gB genotype was used for secondary PCR amplification, yielding amplicons of different sizes for each gB genotype that could easily be differentiated by agarose gel electrophoresis (Fig. 2). Using the above assay 40 serum specimens and 26 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, which had previously tested positive for CMV in 66 AIDS patients with different CMV disease conditions, were gB genotyped. Other nPCR systems are based on amplification and subsequent sequencing of the fragment for molecular analysis.[17-19] These systems allow geno-typing and molecular analysis from small quantities of nucleic acid contained in clinical samples, without the need for cellular culture.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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