Applications Of Aflp Analysis

AFLP has been successfully applied to DNA fingerprinting of a very wide variety of biological sample including plants, animals, and both eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms and viruses.[1,7] In plant studies, it has been useful to estimate genetic diversity[8-10] and to resolve phylogenetic relationships.1-10-12-1 Because AFLP markers cover the entire chromosomes, this technique can be successfully applied for breeding analysis including for variety identification, germoplasm management, indirect selection of agriculturally important traits, and backcross breeding.[13] Identification of markers closely linked to resistance genes,[14] construction of plant genetic maps,[15,16] and quantitative trait loci analysis (i.e., QLT analysis is that of traits that do not fall into discrete classes, and are controlled by multiple independently Mendelianly segregating genes) have been achieved by AFLP.

Applications of AFLP to animal genetics and linkage analysis have not been as widespread as in plant genetics, probably because of availability of dense microsatellite maps.[13] However, AFLP analysis has been used to investigate genetic diversity among domestic cattle,[17,18] and for human genome fingerprinting resulting in an efficient and rapid approach for identifying and scoring multiple variants.[19] AFLP-based human mRNA fingerprinting,1-20-1 where the target is cDNA rather than genomic DNA, had been used for analysis of expression of genes involved in cancer development[21] and to evaluate changes in gene expression after exposure to xenobiotics.[22]

AFLP is well suited to the study of eukaryotic parasitic,[23-25] fungi,[26,27] viruses, and bacteria.[1] The power of the technique for comparative genomics is illustrated by the study of Arnold et al.,[28] which showed that AFLP generated >90% of the fragments predicted from the Escherichia coli K12 genome. The technique has proven especially useful for analysis of bacteria pathogenic to humans and other animals, and the authors' experience has shown AFLP to be highly suitable for public health microbiology and molecular epidemio-logical analysis.[29-33] The robustness of the system is illustrated by the successful interlaboratory comparison of AFLP patterns via the internet to identify strains of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease[34] (http://www.ewgli.org/).

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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