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Type specific

In contrast, genome reassortment is a major generator of diversity. This happens when two different rotaviruses infect the same cell at once. Mixed rotavirus infections have been detected in humans and a recent study of 3601 rotavirus strains from U.K. children with rotavirus diarrhea found approximately 2% to have novel [P]- and G-type combinations.1-11-1

Although it was considered that rotaviruses were species-specific it is becoming increasingly apparent that this is not so. The simian rotavirus SA11 can be used to infect mice, and some human rotavirus vaccines are reassortants of bovine or simian rotaviruses with human rotavirus VP7. How frequently this occurs naturally is unclear and most often it is inferred by detecting an animal-specific VP4 or VP7 in a human rotavirus strain. Examples of this include G5 (pigs), G6, and G8 (cattle) rotaviruses, and, for example, G8 rotavirus makes up over 50% of the G types in Malawi and Nigeria. Analysis of the Malawian rotavirus VP7 gene indicated that it is most closely related to bovine strains A5 (93.6% identical) and Cody (92.3%). In Nigeria a G8 cattle rotavirus isolate was found to be closely related to a human isolate in its VP7 (99.9%) and by Northern blot where all 11 segments cohybridized. Interspecies transmission combined with genomic reas-sortment appears to be a powerful generator of diversity.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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