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pail genomic ■ail DNA

cDNA

ESTs

Fig. 1 (A) Outline of an EST sequencing project. Note that the mRNA and cDNA molecules schematically depicted represent the population of all transcribed genes in the analyzed tissue. (B) Positional relationships of exons and introns on the genomic level, the complete cDNA derived from the mature mRNA transcript of the gene, and the partial cDNA sequence information (arrows) present in the 5' and 3' EST sequences.

pail genomic ■ail DNA

cDNA

ESTs

Fig. 1 (A) Outline of an EST sequencing project. Note that the mRNA and cDNA molecules schematically depicted represent the population of all transcribed genes in the analyzed tissue. (B) Positional relationships of exons and introns on the genomic level, the complete cDNA derived from the mature mRNA transcript of the gene, and the partial cDNA sequence information (arrows) present in the 5' and 3' EST sequences.

Preparation of Input EST Sequences

ESTAnnotator was designed for processing raw trace files (sequence chromatograms) or sequence text files. As EST sequences are generated by complex cDNA cloning procedures, they are often contaminated with vector and linker sequences. For generating high-quality input EST sequences, vector sequences and naturally occurring repetitive elements are masked by default. If too much sequence information is lost due to quality trimming or masking, no further analysis of the input sequence occurs and the task automatically stops. This was the case for about 2.6% of the EST reads in the cartilage EST project.

BLAST Similarity Analysis

Sequence similarity searching is an important methodology in computational molecular biology. Initial clues to understanding the structure or function of a molecular sequence arise from homologies to other molecules that have been previously studied. Genome database searches reveal biologically significant sequence relationships and suggest future investigation strategies. Database search algorithms are used to compute pairwise comparisons between a candidate query sequence and each of the sequences stored within a database in order to find all the pairs of sequences that have a similarity above a defined threshold. The basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) algorithm is an approximate heuristic algorithm used to compute suboptimal pairwise similarity comparisons. Because of its speed, the BLAST algorithm has become the dominant search engine for biological sequence databases. The EST sequences were run against four different databases using the gapped BLAST program.[6] The search against the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, USA)

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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