Xqb

BCR22q11 ABL9q34

Fig. 2 FISH analysis using the LSI BCR/ABL ES Dual Color Translocation Probe (Vysis, Downer Grove, IL). This probe is a mixture of the LSI ABL probe labeled with SpectrumOrangeTM and the LSI BCR probe labeled with SpectrumGreen™. The spanning ABL probe is approximately 650 kb. The SpectrumGreen BCR probe is approximately 300 kb beginning between BCR exons 13 and 14 (M-bcr exons 2 and 3) and extending well beyond the m-bcr region. The probe design allows high sensitivity on the FISH analysis. (A) Partial G-banding karyotype, nucleus, and metaphase from a healthy donor. The nucleus lacking the t(9;22) exhibits a two red, two green signal pattern. (B) Partial G-banding karyotype, nucleus, and metaphase from a patient with CML and a t(9;22)(q32;q11). In the nucleus containing the t(9;22), one green (native BCR), one large red (native ABL), one smaller red (derivative chromosome 9), and one fused red/green signal (derivative chromosome 22) are observed. In some cells, a deletion may occur 5' at the ABL breakpoint that may reduce the pattern to a single fusion pattern. (View this art in color at www.dekker.com.)

addition to the single differentially labeled signals expected from the normal chromosomes (Fig. 2). When a gene locus is rearranged with a wide array of partner genes, the approach would be to use differently labeled probes flanking the recurrent breakpoint regions. In translocations, this would lead to split of the differentially labeled probes, which appear colocalized when the locus of interest is intact.[5] Such assays are, for example, applied for the detection of rearrangements involving the IGH locus or the promiscuous gene MLL.

For all probes studied, a series of positive and negative controls to establish scoring criteria and calculate the diagnostic cutoff should be established. For I-FISH probes, it is accepted that the diagnostic cutoff should be calculated in at least five healthy donors. For the signal patterns of probes leading to double split and double fusion in case of translocation, the false positive rate is virtually zero.[5]

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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