Biomarker Discovery Using Other Microarray Platforms

In addition to transcriptome expression microarrays, specific oligonucleotide microarrays have been applied to the study of DNA variation in clinical material. Multiple probes of short length that differ in sequence at a single base have been designed to identify simple polymorphisms and allelic variations in DNA. The primary applications of these types of microarrays have dealt with automated high-throughput identification of mutations in critical genes such as TP53, a valuable predictor for bladder cancer outcome,[19] and in the genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP).[20] High-throughput CGH arrays can also confirm chromosomal gains and losses alterations found at the genomic level in a comprehensive detailed manner. This provides a significant advantage over laborious pregenome mapping

Tumor and Control Samples

Tumor and Control Samples

Microarray Hybridization

Microarray Hybridization

Tumor classification

Identification of clusters or individual molecular targets

Clinical Validation with Tissue Microarrays

Clinical Validation with Tissue Microarrays

Fig. 2 General strategy used in tumor expression profiling for target identification. RNA isolation from cell lines, tumor biopsy, and control samples is followed by preparation of the hybridization probe, hybridization with the DNA microarray, data acquisition, and analysis. Verification of the results can be performed using different approaches, such as tissue microarray analysis. (View this art in color at www.dekker.com.)

and transcript identification strategies and allows study of genetic changes in tumor progression.[21]

It should be noted that microarrays technology is a convenient platform for assays involving biomolecules other than nucleic acids not widely utilized for patients with bladder cancer yet. Arrays of tissues, peptides, antibodies, proteins, and even cells have been devel-oped.[8,9] This is further evidence of the strength and

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

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