Biosensors incorporate a biological sensing element that converts a change in an immediate environment to signals that can be processed. Nanotechnology-based biosensors have been reviewed elsewhere. Nanomaterials are exquisitely sensitive chemical and biological sensors. As their surface properties are easily modified, nanowires can be decorated with virtually any potential chemical or biological molecular recognition unit, making the wires themselves analyte independent. The nanomaterials transduce the chemical binding event on their surface into a change in conductance of the nanowire in an extremely sensitive, real-time, and quantitative fashion. Boron-doped silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been used to create highly sensitive, real-time, electrically based sensors for biological and chemical species. The sensors can be electronically gated to respond to the binding of a single molecule. Prototype sensors have demonstrated detection of nucleic acids, proteins, and ions. These sensors can operate in the liquid or gas phase, opening up an enormous variety of downstream applications. The detection schemes use inexpensive low-voltage measurement schemes and detect binding events directly so there is no need for costly, complicated, and time-consuming labeling chemistries such as fluorescent dyes or the use of bulky and expensive optical detection systems. As a result, these sensors are inexpensive to manufacture and portable. It may even be possible to develop implantable detection and monitoring devices as biochips based on these detectors.
to build the diagnostic devices from bottom up starting with the smallest building blocks.
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The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.