Blackbox Technology

The development of microfluidic systems,[15] nanotech-nology-based lab-on-a-chip devices,[16] micro-total analysis systems (uTAS),[17] and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)[18] is one of the driving forces for the implementation of nucleic acid-based testing in the point-of-care setting. For example, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) can revolutionize the commercialization of diagnostic tests by development of compact, potentially disposable, automated diagnostic systems that could be used to perform molecular diagnosis in a point-of-care setting. These systems can be used for automated sample preparation and analysis, such as cell separation, nucleic acid purification, nucleic acid amplification and detec-tion.[18] It was predicted that the health-care implications of successfully developed MEMS are enormous, including rapid identification of disease and risk condition, as well as more accessible health-care delivery at a lower total cost.[19] Recently, a biochip device was developed that integrates sample preparation with PCR and DNA micro-array. The on-chip analysis starts with the preparation process of a whole-blood sample, which includes magnetic bead-based target cell capture, cell preconcentration and purification, and cell lysis, followed by PCR amplification and electrochemical microarray-based detection. This biochip performs pathogenic bacteria detection or hemochromatosis genotyping from a whole-blood sample within about 4 and 3 hr, respectively.1-20-1 Another example is the Verigeneā„¢ device from Nano-sphere, Northbrook, USA. The Verigeneā„¢ is a handheld nucleic acid analyzer, which performs clinical sample processing and real-time PCR detection in one instrument, and is scheduled to be available for use at the end of 2004.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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