Bordetellae are small, gram-negative coccobacilli causing respiratory infections in humans and animals. The genus Bordetella comprises eight species; six of which have been isolated from humans. B. pertussis is pathogenic only for humans and causes pertussis (whooping cough), a contagious respiratory disease with severe clinical manifestations in infants. Bordetella parapertussis and Bordetella holmesii cause milder pertussis-like disease. In addition to these species, Bordetella bronchiseptica has been occasionally isolated from the human respiratory tract, B. holmesii and Bordetella hinzii from blood cultures of immunocompromised patients and Bordetella trematum from wound and ear infections. The remaining Bordetella species, Bordetella avium and Bordetella petrii, are not pathogenic in humans.[1]

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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