Brucella Proteomes

Proteome refers to the entire set of proteins expressed by an organism at a specific time and under defined environmental conditions. Early studies of the proteomes of laboratory-grown B. melitensis strains B1115 and B. ovis were conducted by Teixeira-Gomes et al.[9'10] on silver-stained 2-DE gels. In these and other previous 2-DE

studies, protein spots were identified by Edman sequencing and Western blotting (for a review, see Ref. [11]). An examination was also made of the proteomes of B. melitensis 16M and B. abortus grown under conditions of heat, acid, and oxidative stress. These early studies demonstrated that differentially expressed proteins were either induced or repressed under these conditions. Using traditional biochemical approaches, about 54 proteins were identified.[11]

The availability of a completely sequenced and annotated B. melitensis genome paved the way for a rapid global analysis of its proteome (Fig. 1).[12] Using whole-cell protein extracts of laboratory-grown B. melitensis 16M, a comprehensive proteome initiative was undertaken using a series of 2-D gel electrophoresis of narrow overlapping IPG strips from pH 3.5 to 11.0 and MALDI-TOF MS (for a review, see Ref. [13]). To date, more than 1000 nonredundant protein spots were detected and 557 proteins were identified representing 232 discrete ORFs. As shown in Fig. 2, the corresponding ORFs of the identified proteins are distributed evenly between each of the two circular B. melitensis chromosomes, indicating that both replicons are functionally active.

A global comparative proteome analysis of the virulent 16M and vaccine Rev1 strains of B. melitensis has been reported.[14] Significant differences in the expression levels of several proteins involved in various metabolic pathways especially those regulating iron acquisition, sugar binding, protein biosynthesis, and lipid degradation

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Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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