Characterization Of Meningococci

Effective public health countermeasures against menin-gococcal disease, such as vaccination programs, rely on the identification of meningococci, the ability to track temporal and geographical spread of meningococci, and the ability to relate locally and globally obtained isolates.1-11-1 Furthermore, characterization of the genetic diversity of meningococcal isolate collections has provided insights into the structure of meningococcal populations, and the evolutionary mechanisms that shape them.1-12-1 A range of techniques have been used to characterize meningococci, including differences in the electrophoretic mobility of cytosolic enzymes or the DNA sequence diversity of the meningococcal genome. However, methods relying on differences in the immunological reactivity of cell surface components are in most widespread use (Fig. 1).

N. meningitidis

Serogroup

Serotype

Seros ubtype Immunotype

Fig. 1 Serological characterization of N. meningitidis. N. meningitidis can be further subdivided by the immunological reactivity of its capsular polysaccharide (serogroup), PorB protein (serotype), PorA protein (serosubtype), and LPS (immunotype). The figure describes the serological characterization of a meningococcal isolate with the classification: W-135:2a:P1.5,2:L8. (View this art in color at www.dekker.com.)

Serogroup

Serotype

Seros ubtype Immunotype

Fig. 1 Serological characterization of N. meningitidis. N. meningitidis can be further subdivided by the immunological reactivity of its capsular polysaccharide (serogroup), PorB protein (serotype), PorA protein (serosubtype), and LPS (immunotype). The figure describes the serological characterization of a meningococcal isolate with the classification: W-135:2a:P1.5,2:L8. (View this art in color at www.dekker.com.)

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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