Clinical Aspects

H. ducreyi is a strictly human pathogen causing chancroid. Probably because initial stages of infection are not painful, patients typically do not seek medical attention until they had ulcers for 1 to 3 weeks, which is probably 3 to 6 weeks after inoculation.[1] The chancroid ulcer has a pale yellow shallow base and diffuse, irregular borders.[7] Three to 25 times more males than females are infected. In men the lesions typically occur on the prepuce and

Diagnostic tests in use are culture tests, microscopy, PCR, serology, and antigen assays. Older studies use either culture or clinical diagnosis as the gold standard, but both are inaccurate measures of the true incidence of chancroid.[11]

H. ducreyi is a fastidious pathogen that requires complex media (containing heme) and growth conditions (33°C) for culture. H. ducreyi is routinely grown on 5% chocolatized horse blood agar plates, but using two specialized culture media increases the sensitivity.[11,12]

Table 1 Hybridization and amplification test formats for H. ducreyi

Target gene for PCRa

PCR test formatb

Number of samples

Sensitivity, % (relative to)

Year of reference

16S rRNA

Nested; one tube

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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