Clinical Diagnostic Applications

As correlations between genetic polymorphisms and disease are established, the need arises for robust, accurate methods to test for the presence of clinically relevant SNPs. Such testing may be performed to confirm the genetic cause of a clinical indication, establish risk profiles for specific diseases, or determine carrier status for heritable disorders in couples contemplating pregnancy. As the genetics underlying more complex disorders are understood, effective testing will require analysis of panels of SNPs. Electronic microarrays can be formatted to analyze multiple loci from multiple samples, and can be altered to incorporate new or different sets of markers as additional information becomes available. These features will be increasingly valuable in clinical research and clinical diagnostic laboratories as complex genetic diseases are assessed.

Several published reports provide examples of the utility of electronic microarrays for clinical diagnostics. Genotyping has been performed on the TNFa and IL-4 cytokine genes;[15] on the prothrombin1-16,17- and Factor V

gene mutations,

which can lead to venous thrombo sis; and on the NAT1 and NAT2 genes, which are involved in drug metabolism.[11,19] In addition, the NanoChip microarray has been used to genotype 362 samples for eight common mutations in the MeCP2 gene, associated with RETT syndrome,[14] and to analyze 940 samples for 11 SNPs in the Factor VII, b-globin, and RET genes.[20] These studies demonstrate the flexibility and multiplexing capacities of NanoChip microarrays; they also illustrate the benefits of an open platform that enables researchers to tailor the arrays to their own experiments.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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