Color Fish

This method, first described by Speicher et al.[17] and Schrock et al.,[18] allows the simultaneous visualization of all chromosomes within a metaphase in different specific colors. Nearly all chromosomal aberrations (as reciprocal and nonreciprocal translocations, complex rearrangements, ring chromosomes, acentric fragments, dicentric fragments, or insertions) can be detected and defined in more detail.

The 24-color FISH has been used, for example, for studies on normal peripheral blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro,[11,15] on radiotherapy-induced residual chromosomal damage in peripheral lymphocytes,[7] on bone marrow cells of Chernobyl victims,[15] and for analysis of chromosomal aberrations after irradiation with ionizing alpha particles. The latter was also used for investigations on the formation of CCR.[19]

Our own studies have focused on the analysis of in vitro-induced chromosomal aberrations in NBS and AT homozygote and heterozygote individuals compared with

Fig. 1 Example of a 24-color FISH result: karyogram of an NBS-heterozygote person (pseudocolor representation) after in vitro irradiation with 2.0 Gy and scheme of pseudocolors for each individual chromosome. The aberration can be described (nomenclature modified according to the ISCN 1995[25]) as follows: t(1;2),dic(1;14),ace(1),dic(3;9),ace t(3;7),del(7). This result can be summarized as 7 breaks per mitosis. The translocation between chromosomes 3, 7, and 9 forms a complex chromosomal rearrangement. Abbreviations: p = short arms of the acrocentric chromosomes #13, #14, #15, #21, and #22 consisting of repetitive DNA, pseudocolored in a different paint; h=heterochromatic DNA, which is polymorphic and can be present at #1, #9, and #16. (Stars indicate centromere localization.) Images were captured with the ISIS3 digital FISH imaging system (MetaSystems, Altlussheim, Germany) using a PCO VC45 CCD camera (PCO, Kehl, Germany) on an Axioplan 2 microscope (Zeiss, Jena, Germany). (View this art in color at www.dekker.com.)

fhace(3;7)

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Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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