Comparative Genomic Hybridization In Clinical Cytogenetics

Clinical cytogenetic studies often yield karyotypes with unbalanced or unrecognizable G-banded cytogenetic material, examples of which include marker chromosomes, unbalanced translocations, intrachromosomal duplications, and deletions. The challenge is to identify the unbalanced material in order to provide the most up-to-date information for genetic counseling. Such information would directly benefit prenatally ascertained cases of unidentifiable chromosomal material, providing couples with a means to make rational and informed decisions concerning the pregnancy. In pediatric cases, such information may provide the parents with a realistic prognosis and be important for the clinical management of the infant. In the past, this required a comprehensive molecular cytogenetic workup using various FISH probes, an endeavor that is both expensive and labor intensive as numerous probes and/or whole-chromosome paints may be required until the origin of the chromosomal material is identified. In addition, the number of commercially available region-specific probes is limited and covers only a fraction of the genome. Comparative genomic hybridization has now been shown to be an effective single-step focused method for the identification of unbalanced aberrant chromosomal material of unknown origin.[8,9] The advantage of CGH over conventional FISH with whole-chromosome paints (wcps) and multicolor FISH is its ability to identify not only the chromosome from which the additional unknown material was derived but also to map the region involved to specific G-bands on the source chromosome (Fig. 2). In addition to being able

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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