Although HLA genotyping remains a challenge in molecular diagnostics, PCR-based HLA typing techniques have dramatically improved the quality of patient-donor matching and have contributed to the success of transplantation programs. For just a few diseases, HLA alleles are diagnostically useful; but for several autoimmune disorders, high-resolution HLA typing has provided important insights into pathological mechanisms. A still open question is whether to drop out serology and rely only on DNA typing. Although a few laboratories have already made that choice, a frequently mentioned argument in favor of maintaining serology is the need to monitor cell surface expression of HLA antigens and detect possible null alleles that would be mistyped as functional alleles by molecular typing because the mutation is located in a region that is not tested by the technique (intron or nonpolymorphic exon sequence motif). In kidney transplantation, where cytotoxicity crossmatch remains the gold standard, monitoring the expression of HLA antigens at the cell surface by using serology should be helpful. The diversity of the HLA system is so high that clinical laboratories must continuously cope with new polymorphisms, adapt quality assurance systems for reagents and algorithmic softwares, and ensure that appropriate interpretations are provided in case of typing ambiguities. Depending on clinical application, such ambiguities need to be resolved, sometimes at the expense of maintaining several molecular techniques running in parallel.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment