Despite continuing improvements to direct sequencing methodologies, SSCP and HA remain the most popular scanning techniques. Heteroduplex analysis, although similar in principle to SSCP, is considered to be the simpler and quicker of the two techniques. The relative sensitivities, although initially low, have now been substantially enhanced by the development of new gel matrices and, more recently, the adaptation to fluorescent capillary platforms (e.g., MCHA) enabling mutation detection rates close to 100%. The cost of HA compared with direct sequencing for scanning purposes is much more economical even when abnormal resulting fragments are subsequently sequenced to reveal the nature of the underlying mutation. Developments such as the universal heteroduplex generator allow the technique to be tailored to specific mutations.

Already a number of reports have considered the use of microchip-based electrophoresis in resolving heterodu-plexes. Footz et al.[29] described a simple but sensitive method for specific mutation detection for BRCA1 and BRCA2. They utilized a proprietary microfluidic chip (Micralyne, Edmonton, AB) consisting of a defined network of microchannels in glass, similar to conventional capillaries. The chip was filled with a commercially available sieving matrix (POP-6, Applied Biosystems) and loaded with 200-300-bp test PCR products. They experienced very high sensitivity rates for known mutations and reported rapid run times. Each run utilizes a very small quantity of PCR product (250 pL) and virtually no optimization is required. Clearly, similar efforts to increase throughput in a microchip-based system are on the horizon.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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