Because V. cholerae is a water-borne organism, regular monitoring of this water-borne pathogen is required to protect public health particularly in developing countries where hygienic condition is poor. DNA-based molecular techniques have provided evidence to detect genetic changes in V. cholerae and for emergence of new clones or other serogroups. Screening of antibiotic susceptibility will possibly help to find the rapidly changing pattern of antibiotic resistance among V. cholerae strains and to trace the mobility of a genetic element(s), if any, encoding antibiotic resistance.

Hexaplex PCR may be used for the rapid detection of virulence genes in O1, O139, non-O1, and non-O139 serogroups from pure bacterial culture and directly from a variety of specimens, including clinical specimens, after removing inhibitors of PCR present in human feces by centrifugation and activity of remaining inhibitors by 10-fold dilution, foods by quantitative PCR, and environmental samples by extracting DNA from water samples. However, there is a need to develop a multiplex PCR for a rapid and accurate detection of V. cholerae belonging to O1, O139, non-O1, and non-O139 serogroups, in addition to virulence genes from a variety of samples.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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