The application of modern genotypic methods has greatly clarified the phylogenetic status of members of the genus Actinomyces and has led to the recognition of many additional species and subspecies. Identification of Actinomyces spp. by PCR-RFLP with endonucleases

HaeIII and HpalI has proved to be a highly discriminatory method, far superior to conventional biochemical tests. _ ^ PCR-RFLP is practical for testing small batches of clinical isolates in the reference laboratory setting. Resulting data will further aid the establishment of the natural habitats, prevalence, and clinical significance of Actino-myces spp. Meanwhile, in the field of oral microbiological research, the use of cloning, sequencing, and DNA-DNA hybridization continues to increase the knowledge of the bacterial components of specific oral niches and to aid in the elucidation of the complex etiology of peri-odontal diseases.

The laboratory cultivation of Actinomyces spp. from clinical material remains problematical. The direct detection of the causative agents of actinomycosis, ideally from histological sections as well as microbiological specimens, could greatly improve early diagnosis and patient management. At present, success in this has been limited, principally due to intraspecies genetic heterogeneity. Clearly, this is an area that warrants further research and development.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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