This article attempted to give a concise overview on the basic principles as well as the current clinical and research applications of bDNA technology. The widespread use of analytically reliable bDNA assays for viral load determinations during the past decade considerably increased our knowledge on the natural history and pathogenesis of HBV, HCV, and HIV infections; at present, quantitation of viral nucleic acids is an integral part of the clinical management of patients chronically infected with these pathogens. Notwithstanding its indisputable merits, bDNA technology still awaits the major breakthrough in other fields of diagnostic clinical microbiology and has just started to enter the wide area of possible research applications. At present, however, the future development and fate of bDNA methodology is difficult to predict; thus we will most probably only know in a few years which group of the various prophets is right: the ''bDNA supporters,'' who are envisioning further spread of the technology and are waiting for the creation of new applications by ongoing analytical refinement, or the ''bDNA skeptics,'' who believe that the technique has already reached its inherent limits and, consequently, will be replaced soon by newer and even more powerful approaches for nucleic acid quantitation.

bDNA signal amplification from a principal point of view offers a number of advantages for in situ hybridization (ISH) when compared to alternative PCR-based methods or catalyzed reporter deposition signal amplification: The methodology is not affected by polymerase inhibitors present in tissue specimens or endogenous biotin, intricate cell morphology is better preserved because no high-

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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