Fluorescent probes have replaced radioisotopes as labels of nucleic acids. They have important advantages in being nonhazardous and stable upon storage. Moreover, some dyes have different fluorescence in free and bound state, which opens for probing in homogeneous solution, eliminating the need to separate bound and free probes. These dyes were accidentally discovered. Based on detailed structural and thermodynamic investigations of the dyes and their interactions with nucleic acids, we are rapidly learning what governs their properties. This will make it possible to improve the dyes in terms of solubility and sequence nonspecificity, and also to design dyes of different colors. Particularly exciting is the use of the dyes as labels in sequence-specific probes because enhancement in fluorescence can be much more sensitively measured than a change in fluorescence as a result of energy transfer. Also, multiplexing is expected to be much simpler with single-labeled probes.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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