The identification of the FMR1 and FMR2 genes has immeasurably enhanced the quality of care and counseling available to fragile X families. Many previously unidentified families have been diagnosed, and prenatal diagnosis is routinely available. Although no cure for fragile X is imminent, rapid progress in identifying the pathology of fragile X syndrome and the role of FMRP should be invaluable in the development of appropriate drug therapies and interventions. The mouse model may be a useful vehicle in such an endeavor; however, the gap in physiology between mice and humans should not be underestimated. There remains a pressing need for more accurate risk prediction for alleles in the intermediate and premutation size ranges, which may be possible using advanced sequencing techniques to establish the pattern of AGG interspersions within the repeat tract. Finally, the spectrum of conditions associated with premutations and the etiology of such effects remain to be fully elucidated.

Fig. 3 PCR of the FMR1 CGG repeat. Method and primers c and f as in Ref. [14]. (A) Autoradiograph of radioactive PCR gel. Lane 1: Size marker pBR322MspI digest; lane 2: male, 20 repeats; lane 3: male, 30 repeats; lane 4: premutation male, approximately 104 repeats; lane 5: premutation female, 20 plus approximately 73 repeats; lane 6: full-mutation male, no product detected; lane 7: premutation male, approximately 78 repeats; lane 8: heterozygous female, 30 plus 31 repeats; lane 9: homozygous female, 30 repeats. (B) Plots of fluorescent PCR analyzed on ABI377 automated sequencer with Genotyper software. Plot 1: Male, 30 repeats; plot 2: female, 29 plus 30 repeats; plot 3: female, 20 plus 30 repeats; plot 4: female, 30 plus 41 repeats; plot 5: female, 23 plus 30 repeats; plot 6: premutation female, 43 plus 72 repeats; plot 7: premutation male, approximately 70 repeats.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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