The PON1 gene, located on chromosome 7, displays several polymorphisms in the coding and promoter regions that affect the catalytic ability of the protein as well as its level of expression. Both aspects need to be considered when investigating the role of PON1 in organophosphate toxicity, cardiovascular heart disease, and other diseases as well as drug metabolism. Additional areas of current and future research should elucidate the contribution of environmental, dietary and lifestyle factors to the modulation of PON1 expression, as well as the relationship between PON1 and PON2 and PON3, two related genes located on chromosome 7.[10,12] Furthermore, nothing is yet known about the contributions of the recently described >150 polymorphisms in modulating PON1 message splicing efficiency and thereby PON1 levels.

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