There continues to be a need for advances in metabo-nomics analytical technologies both in NMR and MS. Nuclear magnetic resonance is likely to remain the method of choice for a broad impartial survey of metabolic profiles, especially given recent gains in sensitivity through the use of cryoprobe detectors. Mass spectrometry coupled to a separation stage is always likely to yield better detection limits for specific classes of metabolite.

It has proved possible to derive new biochemically based assays for disease diagnosis and to identify combination biomarkers for disease, which can then be used to monitor the efficacy of drugs in clinical trials. Based on differences observed in metabonomic databases from control animals and from animal models of disease, diagnostic methods and biomarker combinations might be derivable in a preclinical setting. The use of databases to derive predictive expert systems for human disease diagnosis and the effects of therapy require compilations from both normal human populations and patients before, during, and after therapy. This approach is summarized in Fig. 2.

The ultimate goal of systems biology is the integration of data acquired from living organisms at all levels of molecular biology. In this respect, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabonomics will all play an important role. Through the combination of these, and related approaches, will come an improved understanding of an organism's total biology, and with this better understanding of the causes and progression of human diseases, and the improved design and development of new and better targeted pharmaceuticals.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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