Conclusion

As the sections above demonstrate, the 0-150 PCR has been established as a sensitive and specific tool for the detection of O. volvulus. The assay has been adapted to detect infections both in humans and vector black flies, and it has been exploited by onchocerciasis control programs in both Africa and the Americas. The variable nature of the 0-150 repeat also makes it a useful tool for differentiating parasite populations and for conducting biogeographical studies.

Several improvements could still be made to increase the utility of the 0-150 PCR. For example, automated and microtiterplate-based DNA purification techniques may improve the throughput of the assay and may increase the number of flies that may be tested in a given pool, decreasing the marginal cost of the assay. Furthermore, previous studies have demonstrated that the 0-150 PCR may be used to measure the filaricidal effects of various experimental drugs.[24] However, ivermectin, the only drug currently approved for treatment of onchocerciasis, kills O. volvulus microfilaria but has less of an effect on the adult form of the parasite. Thus, it is difficult to measure adult viability in the face of ivermectin treatment, something that is necessary to determine when an O. volvulus-infected individual has become infection free and treatment may be stopped. It is possible that use of the 0-150 PCR to detect O. volvulus DNA in tissues other than skin might be used for this purpose.

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Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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