One of the greatest advances in forensic science has been the introduction of DNA profiling. To date DNA profiling is performed using microsatellite amplicons (STRs) where hypervariability exists within the number of repeats of a short DNA sequence motif. Greater than 3 million samples have been analyzed by this method on the U.K. National DNA database alone, with currently an increasing number of samples on the U.S. CODIS and similar DNA databases throughout Europe. Due to the great investment in the science of DNA profiling using STR loci there would need to be a great advantage in a new technology. Single nucleotide polymorphisms offer many advantages, particularly in the speed of throughput and option for automation. Approximately 50 SNP loci are required to have the same discrimination power as 10 STR loci, but 50 SNPs can be detected readily and therefore this level of DNA detection can be overcome. One major reason for microarrays not being more common in forensic science is that crime-scene samples are frequently mixed, containing cellular material from more than one person. In such cases, a mix of a person with SNP of type A only and a person who is type G only could not be differentiated from a person who is A and G. Mixtures occur routinely in forensic science thereby adversely affecting the introduction of SNP typing in human identification.

In forensic toxicology the samples are normally from one person only and it may be in application such as this that SNP typing will find a role.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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