Conclusion

The ethical issues discussed here are by no means the only ones. Despite our best efforts to anticipate and resolve ethical quandaries arising from using genetic technologies, it is likely that unforeseen dilemmas will arise. Despite protective laws and policy recommendations by numerous international organizations, the future impact of such may be substantially challenged.

Medical genomics is here and will be increasingly so in the future. Therefore, ensuring that genetics confers far more benefit than harm is a formidable challenge. Assuring equitable access to the benefits of genetic testing remains an urgent consideration. Ongoing involvement by international organizations will be required to ensure that developing countries are not ultimately harmed and that individuals in such countries can reap the benefits of genetic technologies, as well as engage in policy setting.

Each of us has a stake in how genetic research unfolds and the resulting technologies are applied. The stakes are particularly high because of the magnitude of unknowns involved. High-speed easy chip testing for information A may result in the unanticipated generation and release of information B and C as well. Active involvement by stakeholders may go far in fostering just outcomes. In 2000, the Cannavan's Disease Support Group, which has been instrumental in helping a company develop treatment through raising research funds as well as supplying willing research participants, filed suit against the company for the right to ownership of the research, not to reap financial rewards for profits made from test use, but rather to be actively involved in decisions about the future use of the new knowledge and technology.

The value of a genetic test lies not in the test itself, but rather in what we, as individuals and society, choose to do with that result. What we do with genetic information arguably will have far more impact on health status than the genetic information itself. Whether individuals use test results to alter their behavior to improve their health remains uncertain, especially given evidence that despite high levels of motivation, psychological and other factors have the potential to drive people to act in ways that are contrary to long-term health goals.

In the greater scheme of things, it is unlikely that genetic information will not matter. The relevant question is how much it does, or will, matter. Ensuring the just treatment of individuals will involve deciding the appropriate weight of genetic vs. nongenetic factors, lest we reify genetics as the sole arbiter of an ethical decision.

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Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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