S. pneumoniae remains an important human pathogen throughout the world. The emergence of antibiotic resistance (especially to p-lactams) has fuelled efforts to develop improved diagnostic tests to identify S. pneumo-niae in clinical samples and to rapidly detect antibiotic resistance. Genetic, particularly PCR-based, tests have many attributes that make them ideally suited for this purpose. To date, there are no standardized PCR protocols for routine use in diagnostic laboratories and there are few genomics-based commercial diagnostic kits.

Future research needs to determine ideal PCR targets and sample types to overcome specificity problems when diagnosing pneumococcal infection and to accurately and rapidly detect antibiotic resistance. Quantitative PCR assays may assist in distinguishing colonization from infection with S. pneumoniae, and may provide prognostic information. Efforts to create robust standardized protocols will greatly assist with the introduction of these assays into routine diagnostic laboratories.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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