Conclusion

Chemotherapy remains an important option for the treatment of various malignancies. Drugs have to be activated and inactivated by various enzymes. We have described three enzymes (DPD, TPMT, and UGT1A1) responsible for the degradation of 5-FU, thiopurines, and CPT-11—all of which are widely used anticancer agents. As the activities of these enzymes might vary from patient to patient, standard doses could either cause severe toxicities or be ineffective. Therefore, the future goal should be to individualize dosing according to the genetic pattern of the patient reflected in different enzymatic activities. Molecular testing prior to therapy for identifying factors which predict the treatment outcome and supports individualized therapy are needed. One approach is to determine the variants of the genes coding for the above mentioned enzymes. These genetic polymorphisms should be associated with altered enzyme activities. Thus doses could be predicted for every single patient. As described, a number of genetic variations and mutations are known for the enzymes. Some of them translate into altered enzyme activities. However, because of the huge number of mutations— not always linked to a different phenotype—and because of the genetic differences between ethnic groups, until now it has not been possible to draw final conclusions, which are advantageous for all patients. Nevertheless, for the described enzymes, genetic testing may provide additional information and help to predict the individual dosage for many patients. We hope that, as a result of intensive research in this field, ''personalized therapy'' with drugs having a narrow therapeutic window, such as anticancer compounds, might be possible in the near future.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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