Conclusion

Fluoroquinolone resistance in S. pneumoniae results from spontaneous point mutations in GyrA and ParC. The use of fluoroquinolones in the empiric treatment of community-acquired respiratory infections likely caused by S. pneumoniae and resistance to fluoroquinolones is increasing. Treatment failures with fluoroquinolones, such as levofloxacin, have begun to occur. Accordingly, routine fluoroquinolone susceptibility testing should be conducted to identify resistant organisms with substitutions in both ParC and GyrA so that other antimicrobials can be selected for treatment of these isolates. Most importantly, novel, rapid methods of detecting S. pneumoniae isolates with ParC mutations alone must be developed to limit the fluoroquinolone exposure of these isolates in hopes of reducing the development of high-level fluoroquinolone resistance.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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