Conclusion

It has been shown that microarray technology for identification of HLA alleles can be used for HLA typing;[7'9] however, specificity of signal detection, accuracy of data analysis, optimization of experiment conditions, and ever-increasing identification of new HLA alleles being identified remain as obstacles. The future of using DNA microarrays in HLA typing lies in companies' active development of technology that can compensate for these obstacles. To date, no solid platform for HLA typing using microarrays is available commercially. However, promising development is underway. TeleChem International, Inc., NGS-ArrayIt, Inc. Division (Sunnyvale, CA) has developed Next Generation Screening™ (NGS™) technology, an exciting new technology that uses ''patient-on-the-chip'' microarray technology as a very cost-effective means of HLA analysis. BioCore Co., Ltd. (5th Floor, Heasan Building, 108-1, Yangjea-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul, South Korea) is in the process of commercializing an HLA chip that can identify the HLA-DR genetic locus type. In the mean time, one way researchers can get around the inherent obstacles is by knowing the alleles and frequencies that are present in the populations they are studying. Web sites listing the frequencies of HLA alleles (www.allelefrequency.net) and their linkage to a particular disease in worldwide populations (Anthony Nolan Trust: http://www.anthonynolan. com/HIG/data.html) have been established.[10] Networking of accumulated HLA data could be the key in helping investigators successfully make use of DNA arrays in HLA typing and propelling the understanding of the asso-

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3. Immunology Division Department of Pathology Cambridge University Part 1B. Pathology Lecture 8. http:// www-immuno.path.cam.ac.uk/~immuno/part1/lec07/ lec7_97.html (accessed August 2003).

4. Gerlach, J.A. Human lymphocyte antigen molecular typing how to identify the 1250+ alleles out there. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 2002, 126 (3), 281-284.

5. European Bioinformatics Institute. http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ imgt/hla/status.html (accessed August 2003).

6. Consolandi, C.; Busti, E.; Pera, C.; Delfino, L.; Battista Ferrara, G.; Bordoni, R.; Castiglioni, B.; Rossi Bernardi, L.; Battaglia, C.; De Bellis, G. Detection of HLA polymorphisms by reaction by ligase detection reaction and a universal array format: A pilot study for low resolution genotyping. Hum. Immunol. 2003, 64, 168-172.

7. Robinson, J.; Waller, M.J.; Parham, P.; de Groot, N.; Bontrop, R.; Kennedy, L.J.; Stoehr, P.; Marsh, S.G.E. IMGT/HLA and IMGT/MHC: Sequence databases for the study of the major histocompatibility complex. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003, 31, 311-314.

8. Haddock, S.H.; Quartararo, C.; Cooley, P.; Doa, D.D. Low Resolution Typing of HLA-DQA1 Using DNA Micro-array. In Methods in Molecular Biology; Rampal, J.B., Ed.; Humana Press, Inc.: Totowa, NJ, 2001; Vol. 170.

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10. Middleton, D. Current and emerging technology for HLA typing. Int. J. Hematol. 2002, 76 (Suppl. II), 150-151.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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